THE CALAIS JUNGLE, A MIGRANT CAMP A CRITICAL DISOURSE ANALYSIS AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL CRITIQUE OF THE PERSPECTIVES OF MIGRANTS AND MULTIMODAL METHODS BASED ON VISUAL, AURAL, WRITTEN, AND ORAL REPRESENTATIONS OF WORLDVIEWS
Bodon, Theresa Carol
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This hermeneutic phenomenological study is a critique of the life experiences of refugees living in an unregulated refugee camp in Calais, France known as the Calais Jungle. Through the visual, written, oral, and aural expressions of three refugee participants, their stories illustrated critical viewpoints and self-identity transformations that depict ideological and personal goals toward liberation. This thesis study was part of the researcher’s documentary project about refugee perspectives. The aim of the study was to investigate into the emic perspectives of refugees and to examine the following inquiries: • What signs signified a sense of liberation and independence through expressed storytelling and interviews? And, what underlying themes were identified in their narratives? This study explored the themes and ideological expressions drawing from Gee’s critical discourse methodology. Also, the visual and aural depictions were examined using Rose’s, Barthe’s, Mitry’s, and Kracauer’s semiology in order to present a holistic perspective of their expressions. Additionally, the study embraced Freire’s educational models, of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Pedagogy of Hope in order to develop an educational approach while working with the refugees. Because critical hermeneutics embraces both the subject and the social aspects of the subject, a socio-political framework based on existential and humanistic philosophies, as well as literary structures were incorporated to illustrate critical and holistic interpretations of their expressions. Interestingly, liberation was expressed in a variety tones for each participant such as, love and friendship, childhood reflections, critical perspectives of children living in the camps, political tones related to refugee children’s issues and media depictions of refugees, aspects of relationship and community were emulated within the visual, written, and oral expressions. Self-identity was explored and reinvented, which uncovered each participant’s sense of liberation through their experiences of helping others. Indeed, this study exemplified an approach for researchers, service workers, and educators to learn from refugee experiences in order to better serve such populations, as well as an attempt eradicate prejudicial judgments and persecution. Such approaches opened the lens to integrating education as a focus within migrant border policies in host-country settings.