|dc.description.abstract||The purpose of this study was to determine if any theories emerged from selfdirected learning, teacher-directed learning, or both combined for better possible results in Japanese adult learners. The study examined second language journals, blogs, and
websites for 10 consecutive years (2008-2018) to assess the study.
This was a Grounded Theory, Qualitative Content Analysis study. The three data sources included scholarly journals, blogs, and websites from 2008-2018. Three cycles of
coding were completed with each data source and the process was repeated with the outcome results from the three data sources inclusively.
The theories that emerged proved a strong relationship between ESL/EFL
learning achievement, motivation and self-efficacy in the English language. Those skills include Motivation/Self-efficacy, Autonomous Support, and Learning curriculum, Collaboration, Assessment and Evaluation. The implications from this research study
could impact the education of adult Japanese ESL/EFL university students in terms of effective management of both the learning objectives and the mediums of learning.||