Rural high school teachers' perceptions of an inverted intervention model to support English learners: A multiple case study



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Purpose “Rural high school teachers’ perceptions of an inverted intervention model to support English language learners: A multiple case study” explored the perceptions of rural high school teachers regarding: (a) adequacy to offer content-area instruction to English learners embedded in mainstream classrooms; (b) adequacy of pre-service and professional development training intended to provide instructional strategies suitable for English learners in content-area classrooms; (c) district support for content-area instruction for English learners; (d) the impact of rurality on classroom compositions and intervention needs; and, (e) the impact of high-stakes, state-mandated tests on the academic outcomes of English learners in rural high school content-area classrooms. Method This qualitative, multiple-case study included rural high school content-area teacher participants providing instruction in mathematics, science, and social studies and a regional education service center expert in English as a second language (ESL) and bilingual education. Data were collected from an initial participant questionnaire, individual participant interviews, a group participant interview, and an individual interview with a regional ESL/bilingual education expert. Findings Themes emerging from data analyses adequately addressed research questions and purpose of the study, indicating a need for the provision of contextualized professional training, organized district support, and involvement of teachers in campus, district, regional, and state policy decisions intended to provide support for the instruction of English learners embedded in mainstream, content-area classrooms.



Content-area teachers, English learners (ELs), Professional development, Regional education service center, Response to Intervention (RTI), Rural high schools, State-mandated testing