Influence of knowledge of results on softball throw for accuracy



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The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge or results upon the learning of a motor task. The specific problem was to determine if throwing a softball was enhanced through the use of a teaching aid, which incorporated specific knowledge or results. A sub problem involved the evaluation of a target device as an indicator of throwing skill. The methods used to examine the hypotheses set forth in this study included library investigation, controlled experimental examination, and statistical analysis. The library investigation included a thorough examination of softball skill tests and practice devices. Literature concerning knowledge of results was also reviewed. The controlled experimental examination included the use of two groups of subjects. Defined practice sessions were set up for each group, and data were obtained through the use of judges’ ratings scores and target scores. The statistical analysis included the use of coefficients of correlation and t-tests for significant differences in the mean scores. Findings: Within the limits and design of this study, the analysis of the data revealed consistently the following major findings: 1.) No significant difference was noted between the practice programs involved in the study. 2.) There was not a significant correlation between the target scores and the judge’s ratings as used for evaluation of the throws.



Softball, Learning Mostor task|target device, skill