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ItemAndrew Jackson and Gamal Abdul-Nasser: A Behavioral Study in Comparative Political Leadership(University of Utah, 1971) Souryal, Safwat SabitThe purpose of the present study is twofold: (1) to examine the essential components of leadership in general and charismatic leadership in particular, and (2) to deduce some predictive generalizations pertaining to the emergence, consolidation and termination of charismatic leadership. With these objectives in mind, an attempt has been made to apply the behavioral approach as well as the analytical approach to the leadership of both President Andrew Jackson of the United States of America (1828-1836) and President Gamal Abdul-Nasser of the United Arab Republic (1952-1970)—as case studies. The initial hypotheses which underlie the investigation are the following: 1. Both Presidents were charismatic leaders. 2. Both Presidents acted in the best interests of their countries as they saw fit. 3. Both Presidents, as individuals, matched each other in their socio-psychological settings. 4. Both Presidents encountered separate socio-political situations which might be labelled similar. 5. In displaying their charismatic leadership, both Presidents shared many politico-behavioral uniformities under parallel situations. 6. Some generalizations about charismatic leadership might be deduced from the comparison between the two cases. 7. These generalizations might be of a predictive nature and as such would be helpful in future cross-cultural leadership studies. In this dissertation, a study of the parallel situations brought into focus the following analogies: 1. The Jacksonian Democracy and the Nasserite Socialism. 2. Jackson’s war against the Bank and Nasser's war against Feudalism. 3. Jackson’s war against the Nullifiers and Nasser’s war against the Syrian secessionists. 4. Jackson’s Spoils System and Nasser’s Militarized Bureaucracy. This research produced two sets of results: One set supports the first five hypotheses listed above (which postulate possible similarities between the two leaders). This set was reached by a qualitative analysis of the parallel situations and was substantiated by two methods of quantitative analysis (a content analysis and a questionnaire). In light of this set of results, Jackson and Nasser are seen as sharing a considerable degree of similarity with regards to their charismatic leadership. The other set yields the predictive generalizations anticipated by the last two hypotheses. Because these generalizations presuppose the first set of results, they have been considered the main conclusions of this dissertation. These generalizations are the following: 1. Two independent variables perceived as extremely important in understanding charismatic leadership are personal traits and situational performance. 2. Charismatic potential develops in a leader by a certain merger of his personal traits and his performance style. This merger produces a state of dormant charisma. Dormant charisma flowers when it receives favorable popular support and becomes activated charisma; dormant charisma dies when such support is denied. 3. The effectiveness of charismatic leadership depends on the leader's ability to maintain the charismatization bond between himself and the masses. 4. Charismatic leaders who come from lower social classes tend to be aggressive, violent, and perhaps vindictive. They are Inclined to deploy vociferous ideologies and try to uphold this deployment by repression. In the process of formulating these generalizations, the concept of charisma first initiated by Max Weber has been given a new operational application; namely, the concept of charismatization as presented in this research. The goal of this dissertation has been to make a modest contribution to the study of cross-cultural charismatic leadership. It is hoped that this inquiry will be supplemented by other studies of analogous personalities and that the combined efforts invested in such studies will ultimately transpire in the establishment of an acceptable theory of charismatic leadership. ItemStopped for a Traffic Ticket: A Getaway Scale Index(Sentry, 1979) Souryal, Sam S.Have you ever wondered why you wind up each year with more traffic tickets than your friends whom you consider worse drivers than you are? The chances are they talk their way out of them, at least some. They know how to cultivate the officers tactfully, how to sell them a good story, and how to secure their collaboration. These are obviously delicate tasks which involve considerable risks. In order to be able to handle these tasks successfully you must have a talent for game planning and strategy. More importantly, before you attempt to play the game of evading traffic tickets you must be better informed about your chances. It is, therefore, important and necessary that you familiarize yourself with the Getaway Scale Index (GSI). In ItemPolice Training and Police Professionalism in Egypt(Police Chief, 1983-04) Souryal, SamA small portion of the police community in the U. S. are familiar with Egypt beyond perhaps being the "cradle of ancient civilization", a developing nation, a Muslim society, and the birthplace of President Sadat who immortalized the essence of peace by single handedly making peace with Israel and later giving his life for his chivalrous endeavor. Domestic peace in Egypt, however, must be another prominent Egyptian feature to be reckoned with especially in an age characterized with soaring crime rates and an obsessive fear of walking in the streets of most large cities in the world today. Not only can citizens and foreigners walk the streets of the capital city of Cairo at any time (by day or by night) with almost safety, crime rates in all Egyptian cities have been virtually going down. As Frank Morn, a University of Chicago criminologist, put it in a recent article, "in relation to its population growth and compared to Western societies, Egypt has a negligible crime problem". ItemLaw, Crime and Society in Islamic Jurisprudence(Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987-12) Souryal, Sam S.Judging the religiosity of individuals 1s difficult in itself, is often misleading, and is biblically condemned. Juding the religiosity of societies can be easier since in their aggregate, and in comparison with each other, a distinctive character of docility, of routine activities, and of effective social control can be discerned. Using crime rates as the main indicator, this article attempts t.o examine and explain the religiosity of the Saudi Arabian society since it claims a high level of benevolence due to the application of Shariah (divine) law. The methodology focused on the scrutinization of crime rates in the Kingdom and contrasted them with six Moslem adjacent countries in the region which do not apply Shariah law. The Saudi crime rate was dramatically lower than the median rate among the group, as well as considerably lower than in any individual country. Criminal data were further validated and interpreted by the use of three local self-reporting panels of judges, police officials, and laymen. Conclusions represent a synthesis of the unique role of Shariah law, the infrequency of criminal mc1dents, and ethnographic information collected from personal interviews conducted during a sabbatical leave the author spent m the Kingdom. The study shows that the continuing application of Shariah Jaw in Saudi Arabia has a powerful cleansing influence on society, helps foster a non-criminogenic environment, and confirms some major theories in the literature in religiosity and socialization. ItemComments on the Essence of Management(Justice Professional, 1988) Souryal, Sam S.The purpose of this article is to articulate the essence of management "outside the shop," through a process of fine tuning based on contrasting its tenets with those of the traditionally better known concept of organization. The format used is unorthodox. The article will mimimize the conventional narrative and condense the comparison into taxonomical tables, each with two columns; one illustrating organization, and the other illustrating management. This format is deemed most conducive to clarity and comparability. A brief reiteration of the concepts of administration, organization, and management will be presented first. These will be followed by four tables representing the perspective from theory, from practice, and from the perceptions of workers and of supervisors. ItemCriminal Justice and Policing in the Kingdom of Nepal(Journal of CJ International, 1988-03) Souryal, Sam S.Nestled in the cradle of the highest mountains on earth, it is not surprising that Nepal has come to be known as the kingdom where deities mingle with mortals. In the Nepalese Himalaya, called the "Abode of the Gods," there is Mount Everest, the world's greatest peak also known as Sagarmatha or "The Brow of the Oceans" by the Nepalese. Local Sherpa artists picture the peak as the god Chomolungma riding a snow lion through clouds of many hues (Anderson, 1985). ItemThe United Nations Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Offenders: An Overview With Specific Reference to the Situation in Developing Countries(1995-03) Souryal, Sam S.Anyone who reads the newspapers or watches the miracle of CNN on television cannot escape noting the atrocities committed against prisoners in so many parts of the world. Just recently, atrocities have been reported by the Serbs against Muslim prisoners in Bosnia-Herzogovina. by the Whites against black prisoners in South Africa, by fascist regimes against political prisoners in Latin America, and by the Israeli authorities against Arab prisoners. The world also recalls with horror the atrocities committed by the Iraqis against Kuwaiti prisoners whose sole crime was attempting to liberate their homeland during the Iraqi occupation of 1990-1991. The mistreatment of prisoners is neither new to the history of man. nor is it limited to developing countries. It is the egotistical constitution of man which favors conquest over tolerance, power over reason, and humiliation over kindness. The mistreatment of prisoners has existed in just about every country, in one form or another, at one time or another in its development. Socrates, Jesus. Maciavelli. Thomas More. Galileo. Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Nelson Mandela, to mention just a few, are "living proof of such acts of inmate oppression. Apostle Paul, perhaps because of his personal prison experience, wrote in the message to the Hebrews: "Remember those in prison as though you are imprisoned with them" (Hebrews 13: 3). ItemAn Exposition of Police Badge Policy: Ten Reasons in Support of a Single-badge(Texas Police Journal, 1997-12) Souryal, Sam S.Modern police departments allow for a variety of police badges, i.e., one for patrol officers, one for supervisors, one for detectives, etc. While the rationale behind this policy may have been embedded in tradition, its continuance may speak unfavorably to the department's managerial sophistication. In multiple-badge departments, badges vary from a basic stainless steel version which is small, crude, and of limited appeal, to a golden version which is larger and has ornaments attached to it. The reasoning behind this is certainly one that is motivated by a desire to signify rank or function, to stimulate motivation within the force, to make a better impression on the public, or a combination of all of these. Yet, despite the elegance of this reasoning, the policy may have a counter-effect on the overall performance of the department, and, if so, should be rethought. ItemThe Challenges of White Collar Crimes and Computer Crimes and The Imperative of Training the Police in Forensic Accountancy(Sharjah Conference on Economic Crime, 2002-01) Souryal, Sam S.White Collar crime is a dangerous problem that becomes even more dangerous when aligned with computer crime. These two types of crime feed on each other and present a global challenge to society and the police. The combination of these two types of crime can severely undermine the economy especially in developing countries. It is imperative, therefore, that the police be better trained in the sciences of forensic accountancy. This paper presents definitions, classifications and profiles of how white collar crime and computer crime can be intertwined, who are involved, and the loopholes that allow financial assets to be moved undetected across the globe. The paper examines computer crimes as they practically progress at different stages. This examination addresses criminal techniques such as “trojan horses." “viruses." “salami," “logical bombs." and explain the risks that face society, in general, and public and private institutions, in particular, as a result of these criminal activities. This paper also addresses the relationships between cyber crime, money laundering, and explains the practice of commingling licit and illicit assets. It makes a strong case for training the police in forensic accountancy, an emerging discipline by which police experts can collect direct evidence as well as circumstantial evidence and apply such scientific concepts as “sampling." “forecasting." “ratio analysis." and "flow charts." This paper concludes by proposing an advanced protocol for police training. That protocol focuses on three distinct activities: (1) detection, (2) investigation, and “prevention.” It also introduces the reader to available facilities and programs where the police can be trained to combat economic crimes. ItemA White Paper on Teaching Excellence in Criminal Justice(2008) Souryal, Sam S.This paper reiterates two classic academic propositions: First, intellect without a disciplined mind is worthless and a disciplined mind without intellect is dangerous. This proposition suggests that regardless of faculty efforts, students will not receive quality learning unless they fully understand the theory of "what is being taught, where did it come from, and what is it good for, " and Second, teaching that does not produce quality learning is futile since it can only reinforce ignorance. Therefore, to achieve teaching excellence, it is imperative to consider these two propositions and to rethink the profession of teaching in a new and judicious manner r~cognizing that it is not what the instructors say in the classroom that fosters quality learning, but rather what the students hear and interpret that can make the difference between mediocrity and excellence (Luntz, 2007, xiii). ItemDemythelogizing Personal Loyalty to Superiors(Critical Criminology, 2011) Souryal, Sam S.This article examines the practice of personal loyalty to superiors, in general, and in criminal justice agencies, in particular. While practitioners are taught that their primarily loyalty is to the United States Constitution, State laws, departmental rules and regulations, they are organizationally taught that personal loyalty to superiors is paramount if they wanted their career to continue and prosper. As a result many practitioners are rightfully confused (even exhibiting paranoia) over who or what to be primarily loyal to, and at what price or risk. This unwarranted fear has been behind numerous acts of malfeasance and misfeasance; it can lower the workers’ morale, confuses the practitioners, and destabilizes the agency’s equilibrium. This article examines three types of workplace loyalties, and suggests, as an attempt toward reform, the use of a more sensible duty-based paradigm. Such a paradigm can be based on four practical propositions: (1) seriously examining why personal loyalty to superiors is deemed essential, if at all, especially since it is never mentioned in the agency’s rules and regulations; (2) taking the fear out of the language of “loyalty-disloyalty” by perhaps replacing the term with more benign and rather measurable terms such as “performance and collaboration;” (3) strengthening dutiful supervision; and (4) maximizing professional accountability. ItemReflections on the Roots of Plato's Republic And the Emergence of the Just State(2011) Souryal, Sam S.In 399 B.C., Plato, at the age of 28, left Athens after the death of his mentor Socrates and traveled to Egypt. There is no historical data as to where he went in Egypt, who he met, or what he learned. This article traces Plato's footsteps in Egypt suggesting that he studied for an unknown period of time at the Greek Oracle of Siwa, North Africa, which served as a famous center of Egyptian mythology. The Oracle which still exists was continually frequented by famous Greek philosophers and was mentioned by Herodotus at least 28 times in volume II alone of the History of Herodotus. This article further presents a unique symmetry between the 3000 year old tribal form of government that still exists in the oasis and is supported by a series of urf(traditional) laws numerous of which were echoed in The Republic soon after Plato returned from Egypt. The unnoticed symmetry existed in at least seven normative and juristical areas: a tri-tier social stratification model; justice and communitarianism; the philosopher king ideal; disregard of democracy; the idea of the Polis; the treatment of women; and the ideal of the good.The reader should be reminded that this article does in no manner imply that Plato plagiarized what he had heard and seen in Siwa. Far from being the truth. This article suggests that Plato’s learning in Siwa strongly reinforced his original thoughts and convinced him that The Republic was not only workable but coincides with his ultimate theory of governance. The before mentioned information was discovered during a field study by the author in 2000 as a part of a Faculty Development Leave. The purpose of the previous study was to examine crime and justice in the remote locations in North Africa, one which Herodotus mentioned numerous times as documented in Rawlinson (1885) The Histories of Herodotus. ItemPotential of Turning Community-Oriented Policing into a Force of Civility and Democracy(Al-Fikr Al-Shurti, 2011-04) Souryal, Sam S.This article suggests changing the mission of Community-Oriented policing officers by making them agents of civility and re-enforcers of democracy by teaching them Liberal Arts including (i.e. reasoning, logic, discretion, and justification. As a better-educated group, they are then serve group organizers, role models, teachers, peacemakers as well as peacekeepers. More significantly, they should uphold Constitutional and democratic values by acting with justice, honesty, equality, fairness, and compassion-- all without bias associated with race, national origin, color, or ethnicity. As a result, they would be better able to practice communication, mentoring, and problem solving. At this time, CP0s should be actively engaged in civic engagement, caring for people's welfare, keeping streets open and clean, reporting sewage leaks, removing graffiti, organizing the use of cabs, observing the rule of "first come-first serve," solving small and mundane disputes, and more importantly, treating citizens as ends rather than means. In turn, they can accelerate the growth of civility and the ascendency of democracy--all while lowering crime rates. Such a drop in crime rates would more likely be a direct result of encouraging legitimate and open avenues to government offices, enjoying equal justice by criminal justice agents, and treating each individual with "true" dignity and respect. As such, CP0s can positively reshape community culture in such a manner not different from those in highly developed nations (i.e., Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, New Zealand, and, among Asian countries, Singapore and Hong Kong). By espousing this new mission, CPOs can encourage a culture of civility within communities (i.e. on the streets, at homes, at schools as well as on trains, buses, and cabs. The outcome of such endeavors would most likely create a closer bond between police, civility, and democracy. Such a collaborative relationship has always led to stability of government, happiness of citizens, and the fulfillment of social good. ItemThe Sensibility of Turning Community-Oriented Policing into a Force of Civility and Democracy(Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 2011-12) Souryal, Sam S.This article suggests changing the mission of Community-Oriented policing officers by making them agents of civility and re-enforcers of democracy by teaching them Liberal Arts including (i.e. reasoning, logic, discretion and justification. As a better educated group, they are then serve group organizers, role models, teachers, peace makers as well as peace keepers. More significantly, they should uphold Constitutional and democratic values by acting with justice, honesty, equality, fairness, and compassion-- all without bias associated with race, national origin, color, or ethnicity. As a result, they would be better able to practice communication, mentoring, and problem solving. At this time, CP0s should be actively engaged in civic engagement, caring for people's welfare, keeping streets open and clean, reporting sewage leaks, removing graffiti, organizing the use of cabs, observing the rule of "first come-first serve," solving small and mundane disputes, and more importantly, treating citizens as ends rather than means. In turn, they can accelerate the growth of civility and the ascendency of democracy--all while lowering crime rates. Such a drop in crime rates would more likely be a direct result of encouraging legitimate and open avenues to government offices, enjoying equal justice by criminal justice agents, and treating each individual with "true" dignity and respect. As such, CP0s can positively reshape community culture in such a manner not different from those in highly developed nations (i.e., Scandinavian countries, Switzerland, New Zealand, and, among Asian countries, Singapore and Hong Kong). By espousing this new mission, CPOs can encourage a culture of civility within communities (i.e. on the streets, at homes, at schools as well as on trains, buses, and cabs. The outcome of such endeavors would most likely create a closer bond between police, civility, and democracy. Such a collaborative relationship has always led to stability of government, happiness of citizens, and the fulfillment of social good.