ItemValidity of the Somatic Complaints Scales of the MMPI‑2‑RF in an Outpatient Chronic Pain Clinic(Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 2021-02-22) Mickens, Lauren; Nghiem, Duyen; Wygant, Dustin; Umlauf, Robert; Marek, RyanChronic pain has become a significant medical issue. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband psychological test that has been validated for use across various medical settings and can aid in the assessment and treatment planning of chronic pain. In the current investigation, it was hypothesized that the somatic complaints scales of the MMPI-2-RF would demonstrate good convergent validity from a structured psychodiagnostic interview and other measures of pain and somatization, and lack gender bias. Patients (n = 200) who produced valid MMPI-2-RFs in an outpatient chronic pain clinic were included in the study. Patients were also administered the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ), Pain Disability Index (PDI), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IVTR (SCID). Zero-order and partial correlations (controlling for gender) were calculated between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and other criteria. Stepdown hierarchical regression analyses were used to detect bias. By and large, higher scale scores on the somatic/cognitive scales of the MMPI-2-RF were modestly or substantially correlated with MSPQ scores, PDI scores, and SCID Somatization symptom count, even after controlling for gender. Regression analyses suggested that the MMPI- 2-RF scale scores were not biased as a function of gender. These findings support the validity of specific MMPI-2-RF scales to help identify somatization and psychosocial functioning among patients with chronic pain. Identification of somatization early within the course of treatment of chronic pain may help focus treatment targets, including referrals for psychological interventions such as cognitive behavior therapy for chronic pain. ItemUnleashing shear: Role of intercellular traction and cellular moments in collective cell migration(Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2020-02-05) Alvarez, Diego F.; Patel, Neel G.; Nguyen, Alyson; Xu, Ningyong; Ananthasekar, Shivani; Stevens, Troy; Tambe, Dhananjay T.In the field of endothelial biology, the term “shear forces” is tied to the forces exerted by the flowing blood on the quiescent cells. But endothelial cells themselves also exert physical forces on their immediate and distant neighbors. Specific factors of such intrinsic mechanical signals most relevant to immediate neighbors include normal (Fn) and shear (Fs) components of intercellular tractions, and those factors most relevant to distant neighbors include contractile or dilatational (Mc) and shear (Ms) components of the moments of cytoskeletal forces. However, for cells within a monolayer, Fn, Fs, Mc, and Ms remain inaccessible to experimental evaluation. Here, we present an approach that enables quantitative assessment of these properties. Remarkably, across a collectively migrating sheet of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, Fs was of the same order of magnitude as Fn. Moreover, compared to the normal components (Fn, Mc) of the mechanical signals, the shear components (Fs, Ms) were more distinctive in the cells closer to the migration front. Individual cells had an innately collective tendency to migrate along the axis of maximum contractile moment e a collective migratory process we referred to as cellular plithotaxis. Notably, larger Fs and Ms were associated with stronger plithotaxis, but dilatational moment appeared to disengage plithotactic guidance. Overall, cellular plithotaxis was more strongly associated with the “shear forces” (Fs, Ms) than with the “normal forces” (Fn, Mc). Finally, the mechanical state of the cells with fast migration speed and those with highly circular shape were reminiscent of fluid-like and solid-like matter, respectively. The results repeatedly pointed to neighbors imposing shear forces on a cell as a highly significant event, and hence, the term “shear forces” must include not just the forces from flowing fluid but also the forces from the substrate and neighbors. Collectively, these advances set the stage for deeper understanding of mechanical signaling in cellular monolayers.