Elementary teachers' perceptions of technology integration in English and Language Arts instruction



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The use of technology devices and applications continues to increase in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary teachers’ perceptions of technology integration in English and Language Arts instruction. A phenomenological research design (Moustakas, 1994; van Manen, 2016) was used to determine teachers’ shared experience of technology integration. Six teachers who were members of a district’s technology learning group were selected using purposeful sampling. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and from the teachers’ posts on their school websites and Twitter accounts. The interview data were analyzed using In Vivo Coding and Process Coding, and Axial Coding processes (Saldana, 2016). Process coding and analytic memos were used in the analysis of online data (Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2014). The online data consisted of text including tweets, and also photographs, graphics, and videos. Themes were derived from the significant statements of the individual teachers’ composite data. These themes included access, technology as a tool, and collaboration. Findings revealed teachers viewed technology integration in literacy favorably, citing its’ positive impact on student learning and achievement. They believed it provided access to all students and teachers to new ways of learning, teaching, collaborating, and communicating. Technology integration occurred beyond the classroom as students and teachers connected with their peers around the world. Literacy skills were taught across content areas and integrated into projects. Teachers believed using technology was essential for preparing students for future careers and life. Factors that encouraged their use of technology included the availability, support for diverse student groups, and professional development. Having insufficient time and resources were identified as barriers to technology integration. Teachers did not have a curriculum framework or consistency in technology integration practices, which has implications for current practices and future research. The model of using a cohort for professional development appeared effective in supporting teachers’ technology integration.



Phenomenology, literacy, technology integration, educational technology, elementary teachers, social media, websites