ItemTHE MODERATING EFFECT OF PERSONALITY AND GENDER ON PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED RACE-RELATED STRESS(2021-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Phillips, Jasmine; Salami, Temilola; Henderson, Craig; Drislane, LauraBlack/African Americans who experience race-related stress are more susceptible to suicidality. More research is needed to understand the strength of this relation and the other possible factors that influence this relation. Past research has noted moderating factors such as coping, religion, and social support on the association between race-related stress and suicidality; however, there are no research studies examining the direct relation of both gender and personality on this association, particularly in the Black/African American community. Therefore, using the Socio-Ecological Model as the theoretical framework, this study sought to determine the impact of personality traits and gender on the association between race-related stress, suicidal ideation, and correlates of suicide (i.e., depression, anxiety, and hopelessness). The current study consisted of 133 Black/African Americans in the Southeastern United States, aged 18-59 years (M = 34.01, SD = 11.856) with the majority being women (51.9%) and single (65.4 %). Linear multiple regression analyses explored the moderating effects of gender and personality on the association between race-related stress, suicide, and suicide correlates (i.e., depression, anxiety, hopelessness). A significant moderating effect for personality and gender was found with depression and hopelessness, particularly for the Neuroticism personality factor, such that for men with higher levels of Neuroticism there was a positive association between race-related stress and the psychological outcomes. Further discussion of the findings and their implications can be found in the discussion section. ItemHEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS’ PERCEPTIONS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING VICTIMS: ASSESSING IDENTIFICATION, BIASES, AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR(2021-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Hari, Cayla; Salami, TemilolaHuman trafficking victims often present to healthcare settings for treatment. Thus, healthcare professionals are in a unique position to be able to identify and assist victims. However, most healthcare professionals receive little to no formal training or education about human trafficking, and their perceptions of human trafficking are often formed through biased media depictions. The research suggests that demographic characteristics of trafficking victims may determine how likely individuals are to help victims. As a result, healthcare providers may fail to identify an individual as being trafficked; thus, many victims who receive healthcare services go unrecognized as victims of trafficking. Part one of this study focused on expanding on a previously developed vignette measure designed to see if stakeholders are able to accurately identify victims or if they hold biases based on demographic variables (i.e., sex, immigration status, race/ethnicity, and primary language) and forms of trafficking (i.e., sex or labor trafficking). Using a vignette study design, part two of this study sought to examine any potential stakeholder biases that are based on the demographic characteristics of victims (i.e., sex, immigration status, race/ethnicity, and primary language) or form of trafficking (i.e., sex or labor) that hinder the identification of victims or play a role in helping or aiding trafficking victims. The results show that healthcare professionals were less likely to accurately identify and engage in prosocial behaviors towards domestic, White, and labor trafficking victims. Implications and future directions are discussed. ItemINTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE PORTRAYAL IN POPULAR CULTURE: CONTENT ANALYSIS OF BATMAN AND SUICIDE SQUAD(2021-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Gernhart, Julia; Clevenger, ShellyCriminological study of comics has received increased interest in recent years, as recognition for both their social and monetary importance has become more recognized. Despite the increasing attention, limited focus has been applied to how comics portray intimate partner violence (IPV). The present thesis seeks to address this gap in media studies, by exploring one of the most extreme and popular examples of IPV in comics, the relationship between Harley Quinn and The Joker. Additionally, the exclusion of Harley Quinn and Poison Ivy’s romantic relationship in mainstream media will be discussed. The present study seeks to explore if entertainment media presents emotional or physical IPV more frequently, and if media treatment of IPV changes across subcultural media groups. A total of 249 individual pieces of media, including 185 comics, and over 51 hours of episodic and movie content were analyzed in this study. Emotional IPV was found to be more frequently presented in all media forms. Physical IPV was relatively less common, and was heavily concentrated into comic based media formats. The implication of the results will be discussed. ItemComparison of Endohelminth Parasites in Alligator Gar (Atractosteus Spatula) and Spotted Gar (Lepisosteus Oculatus) from Sabine Lake(2021-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Thorn, Chelsea S; Cook, Tamara; Smith-Herron, AutumnAlligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) and spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) are predatory, primitive fishes with a long evolutionary history. Both species are native to North America and are distributed through the gulf coast. The parasites of these 2 species are understudied throughout their range, but particularly in coastal Texas. This study examined the endohelminth parasite communities of these 2 species in a unique study habitat (Sabine Lake Estuary). A helminth survey of 40 alligator gar and 40 spotted gar was conducted on specimens captured from Sabine Lake in the spring and summer of 2018. Parasitic intensity and Shannon-Wiener diversity were calculated for each fish individually and then regressed against host size and habitat salinity to determine if these variables influence parasite community. The communities of the 2 species were then compared using Shannon-Wiener diversity, Percent Similarity index, and a mixed effect model. From these samples, 13 parasite species were identified (5 trematodes, 4 nematodes, 2 cestodes, and 2 acanthocephalans), 10 of which were shared by both host species. Host size and salinity were not found to be significant predictors of parasite community diversity. This study is significant as a survey of endohelminths from Sabine Lake that documents new host and localities for several parasite species as well as highlighting the diversity of parasite species found in gar captured from a saline environment. ItemAlternative Sample Processing Techniques for Rootless Hair Shafts and other Challenging Samples(2021-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Gutierrez, Ryan Matthew; Houston, RachelEvidence recovered for forensic testing often includes challenges that will impede typical genetic analysis using short tandem repeat markers with capillary electrophoresis platforms. This can include degradation, inhibition, and the lack of sufficient template for successful processing. To increase successful analysis of samples, optimization of testing protocols has been implemented with varying success in forensic crime laboratories. Even with these improvement attempts, it is sometimes necessary to perform alternate analysis on forensic samples. For some cases the sequencing of mitochondrial DNA is performed as a secondary option to traditional workflows. One sample type that is commonly considered challenging and relegated to mitochondrial sequencing is rootless hair shafts. Given these challenges, novel strategies that attempt to improve the recovery of genetic information are often proposed to either circumvent or supplement existing analysis options. These include amplification of markers that are not STRs and analysis of any amplified DNA with alternative instrumentation such as massively parallel sequencing (MPS) platforms. In this research several approaches are implemented to improve the recovery of genetic information from challenging sample types, with a focus on rootless hair samples. The first series of experiments focused on the extraction and amplification of DNA. Several variables were tested during this process including hair pre-treatment, extraction procedure, amplification strategy, and instrumentation. Results from this research showed that while hair decontamination did decrease the occurrence of allele drop-in with rootless hair samples, it also drastically decreased the recovery of DNA. Optimized extraction techniques can increase the recovery of DNA from challenging sample types. Lastly, with challenging samples, it is necessary to concentrate amplification strategies on small amplicon fragments to improve success. To improve results with mitochondrial DNA sequencing, a novel MPS workflow was rigorously assessed for use with forensic samples. Testing parameters included limits of detection, concordance with alternate sequencing techniques, mixture detection, repeatability, and success with forensic type samples. Overall, the workflow tested performed similarly to or better than the comparison methods with a high potential for implementation in the immediate future. Another major concern with many of the challenging forensic sample types is the potential for genetic content to be mixed or contaminated from an external source. To better characterize the occurrence of mixtures in MPS, mixture samples were created using known profiles and amplified for MPS. This data was analyzed to identify potential strengths and weaknesses when compared to capillary electrophoresis. The MPS platform included Y-STR results that would need to be generated using a separate STR amplification on CE. The limit of detection for MPS is also an improvement. The information gathered from isoalleles and additional STR markers can also lead to more discriminatory profiles when looking at some DNA mixtures. However, there are limitations, with a noticeably less reproducible peak height ratios being generated on the MPS platform. The implementation of probabilistic genotyping software with MPS data should be considered to ease mixture interpretation. ItemTHE EFFECTS OF INCREASED TRUNK BODY COMPOSITION, CHEST STRENGTH, AND LEG STRENGTH ON CLUBHEAD SPEED IN RECREATIONAL GOLFERS(2022-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Beverly, Sydney; Wagner, Matthew C; Davis, Patrick R; Urso, Philip M; Bunn, JenniferThe purpose of this study was to determine if trunk body composition, chest strength, and leg strength predict clubhead speed (CHS), which is positively correlated with driving distance. Factors that contribute to CHS are flexibility, technique, skill level, and strength. Increased musculature was previously believed to decrease flexibility in golfers; therefore, many golfers would refrain from participating in resistance training. However, increasing strength, flexibility, and balance increases golf performance. By increasing strength, athletes are more likely to have more control of the club throughout the swing. Therefore, increased strength and muscularity could result in increased CHS. The participants (n = 11) completed assessments that involved height and weight measurements, body composition assessment, predicted one repetition maximum, and CHS measurements. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, v. 17.0, Chicago, IL). Central tendency and spread of the data are denoted as mean and standard deviation. A stepwise regression was used to determine which variables and interactions were significant regarding their relationship to CHS. The results of this study showed correlations between CHS and trunk fat mass (r = -0.231), trunk lean mass (r = 0.072), trunk fat percentage (r = -0.521), flat bench press (r = 0.611), incline bench press (r =0.499), leg press (r = 0.466), and hack squat (r = 0.369). The only significant correlation was between CHS and flat bench press (P = 0.046). ItemGrading Practices in Choice-based Literacy Workshop: Teacher Perceptions of the Implementation of Standards-based Grading(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Oliver, Kelly P.; Young, Chase J; Price, Debra P; Miller, Melinda S; Sarao, DianaReading and Writing workshop is a solution some schools are turning to in response to the demands for change in English instruction. The workshop structure allows students to select many, even most, of their own texts and topics. The authentic reading and writing experiences address the need for creativity and critical thinking for their post-secondary endeavors and future jobs. However, teachers indicate grading practices continue to hinder their reliance on workshop structures and their commitment to offer wide differentiation and choice. This work examines teachers’ perceptions of implementing different grading practices encompassed in standards-based grading. This research design includes a Metaplan structure and follow-up interviews to ensure clarification and accuracy. Future research might focus on teachers’ perceptions of grade reporting using a traditional grading system while applying standards-based grading. ItemAttitudes toward Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Individuals: A Thematic Analysis(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Ogonnaya, Shalom Nkwachi; Rudes, Danielle S; Vaughn, Michael S; Craig, Miltonette OSubstance use disorder (SUD) remains an epidemic especially among the prison population. Evidence has established that attitudes toward SUD remain influential in the success or otherwise of treating SUD both in the official apparatus of the criminal justice system and in community settings. Negative attitudes toward SUD may adversely affect individuals’ willingness to seek and remain in treatment programs. However, limited research examines attitudes of incarcerated individuals involved in substance use within U.S prisons. This is concerning given that the prison population features a disproportionate number of individuals with SUD as compared with the general population. To fill this knowledge gap, this thesis used interview data collected from individuals incarcerated in maximum security prisons in New York (n=87) and one jail in Texas (n=24). In all, 200 participants (N=111) were included in the study. Analysis of interview data using a thematic approach revealed that attitudes toward SUD among incarcerated individuals are categorized into three major themes namely: avoidance, empathy, and acceptance. Findings from the study implicate the need for greater awareness and sensitization about SUD in carceral spaces, expansion of treatment programs and services of SUD treatment, systematic sorting of carceral residents and creation of peer support group among incarcerated persons. ItemSYNTHESIS AND MODIFICATION OF AN EPOXIDE-CONTAINING POLYMER PREPARED USING RING OPENING METATHESIS POLYMERIZATION (ROMP)(2023-08-02T04:00:00.000Z) Liyanage, Janangi Vidushani; Hobbs, Christopher E; Gross, Dustin E; Hinze, Meagan EEpoxides, also known as oxiranes, are highly strained three-membered, cyclic ethers that can readily undergo ring-opening reactions with a variety of nucleophiles. Furthermore, these reactions can be used to modify the properties of epoxide-containing polymers and to synthesize a wide range of functionalized polymers. Epoxide containing polymers (EPs) have been widely used as starting materials and as intermediates in the synthesis of various functional materials. However, polymers that contain epoxide groups can be synthesized with controlled molecular weights and polydispersities (Ð). In this study, cyclooctene and 9-oxabicyclo [6.1.0] non-4-ene monomers are used to prepare EPs using ROMP conditions with Grubbs 2nd generation initiator. Post-polymerization modification (PPM) reactions are important tools to tailor a polymer’s properties and performance for various applications. Therefore, the focus of this project is aimed at the synthesis of EP’s, using ROMP, that can undergo PPM reactions to provide polymers decorated with functionalities that include azides, hydroxyls, thiols, esters, silanes, amines, and others. In particular, the conversion of these epoxides to azidohydrins is an important step for the efficient synthesis of functionalized molecules and materials using the copper-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, the prototypical “Click reaction”. Notably, epoxide polymers containing azides (EP-N3) can act as a common platform linking various functional groups and would be an effective route to synthesize polymers without any by-products. In thio-bromo click reactions, the advantages of this reaction include the mild reaction conditions, high efficiency, and selectivity use as a tool for the v post-polymerization modification of materials derived from ROMP. Consistent with our expectations, the modified copolymers will provide an effective and facile route to synthesize PPM copolymers. ItemPredictive Species Distribution Modeling of Molluscan Agricultural Pests to Assess the Probability of Future Invasions in the United States(2023-08-01T07:00:00.000Z) Hankins, Kayla Rae; Randle, Christopher P; Williams, Justin K; Ulseth, Amber JAs a result of the explosive increase in the globalization of the world’s economy, travel, and trade, the introduction of non-native invasive species, made either intentionally or accidentally, is a well-documented phenomenon. Industries such as the horticulture, pet, and live-food trades are all major culprits in the dispersal of non-native alien species around the globe. Invasive terrestrial gastropods pose a significant and understudied threat to United States agriculture, native biodiversity, and public health. Thus, the objective of this research is to make use of publicly available occurrence data sourced from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) to generate a suite of correlative and mechanistic predictive species distribution models including the General Additive Model (GAM), Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt), Boosted Regression Trees (BRT), CLIMEX, and weighted consensus ensemble forecasts to better identify areas of potentially suitable habitat for high-risk invasive terrestrial mollusk species in the continental US under both current and future climatic conditions. The results of this study have been used to generate a series of ranked species threat assessments which can ultimately be used to better inform domestic pest quarantine measures, long-term pest monitoring projects, and integrative pest-management strategies to further aid in the prevention and early detection of the successful establishment of high-risk invasive terrestrial gastropods here in the US as the global climate continues to change. ItemModern Day Slavery: Identifying Risk and Protective Factors for PTSD Symptoms in Individuals at Risk for Human Trafficking(2023-08-01T07:00:00.000Z) Galicia, Betsy E.; Varela, Jorge G; Salami, Temilola; Russell, Tiffany D; Lyons, PhillipThe United States (U.S.) is one of the top 10 destinations for human trafficking, with tens of thousands of individuals being trafficked into the nation (Hepburn & Simon, 2010). Human trafficking is a highly profitable, organized crime industry in which perpetrators inflict significant mental and emotional abuse, as well as physical and sexual violence on their victims (Busch-Armendariz et al., 2014; Hepburn & Simon, 2010). As a result, trafficking victims may experience adverse mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS; Hopper & Gonzalez, 2018, Hossain et al., 2010; Ottisova et al., 2016). Against this backdrop, and using the risk-protective model as a guide (Cardoso & Thompson, 2010; Fergus & Zimmerman, 2005), the present study examined risk and protective factors for PTSS in a sample of individuals at risk of human trafficking victims. Factors such as discrimination, poor social support, and familism may influence the risk of PTSS in trafficked populations. Therefore, discrimination was examined as a potential risk factor, while familism (i.e., a cultural value emphasizing the family over the self) and social support were examined as potential protective factors and moderators in the relationship between discrimination and PTSS in a moderated-moderation analysis. Participants were recruited online from shelters, hospitals, and anti-human trafficking organizations, and were eligible for the study if they were adults, lived in the U.S., and were either 1) Made or forced to work against their will, or 2) Made or forced to perform sex acts against their will. All participants (n = 73; 83.6% female) were adults (18 to 61 years old; M = 35.32; SD = 10.18) and indicated either a history of trafficking or being at risk of being trafficked. Overall, results indicated that discrimination was associated with PTSS; however, neither familism nor perceived social support emerged as moderators in the relationship between discrimination and PTSS. Findings, limitations, and strengths of the study, as well as policy and clinical implications, are discussed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to examine the relationship between discrimination, familism, perceived social support, and PTSS in a U.S. adult sample of individuals at risk of being trafficked. ItemINVESTIGATING THE INTERACTION OF ALBUMIN WITH THE CYANIDE (CN) ANTIDOTE CANDIDATE POLY- 80 FORMULATED DIMETHYL TRISULFIDE (DMTS) AND CEFUROXIME, A COMMON ANTIBIOTIC AS A COMPARISON(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Herath, Herath; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Trad, Tarek MFinding a new Cyanide (CN) antidote is a great milestone in toxicology. Nithiodote™ and Cyanokit® are the two current CN antidotes used in the USA. Due to some of their limitations, there was a need to develop an effective intramuscular (IM) antidote to treat CN intoxication. The small lipophilic compound Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) has been proposed as a novel CN antidote. Protein binding and membrane binding are important aspects of drug development as they influence the bioavailability of a drug. The well-known Protein Equilibrium Dialysis (PED) method was used for the protein binding characterization for two molecules: the CN antidote candidate Poly-80 formulated Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS),(Poly80-DMTS) and the antibiotic Cefuroxime. In this study, the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) method was employed for the protein binding and penetration studies. The moles in the donor cells and the acceptor cells for both drugs were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method calibrated for the specific PED setup in PION PAMPA Buffers both in the presence and absence of Albumin. In PAMPA studies with Poly80-DMTS, the presence of Albumin decreased the membrane penetration by factor 1.27 and enhanced the membrane retention by factor 1.20. This suggests that DMTS has an affinity for binding to Albumin and the DMTS-Albumin complex is less capable of traveling through the artificial membrane. More experimental conditions are being investigated in the ongoing studies. In PED studies with Poly80-DMTS, the percentage of DMTS transferred to the acceptor plate in the absence of Albumin was about 1.5 times greater than the percentage transferred when Albumin was present. This also suggests that DMTS has significant affinity for binding to Albumin. In PED studies with Cefuroxime, the percentage of Cefuroxime B and Cefuroxime A transferred to the acceptor plate was lowered by a factor of 1.6, when Albumin was present in the donor plate, suggesting that Cefuroxime also has significant binding affinity to Albumin. DMTS shows better in vitro and in vivo antidotal character than any of the current CN antidotes. Presently DMTS is on the way to the FDA approval for being established as a therapeutic agent to treat CN intoxication. Clinical trials and metabolism studies are listed as to be done experiments. ItemDEVELOPING METHODS FOR INVESTIGATING DIMETHYL TRISULFIDE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Brockhausen, David Duane; Thompson, David E; Gross, Dustin E; Hinze, Meagan EDimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is currently being investigated as an antidotal candidate for cyanide poisoning. DMTS is lost from aqueous solution more rapidly than would be expected given that its boiling point exceeds that of water. Prior investigations have shown that the preferential loss of DMTS from aqueous solutions is reproducible but have not yet provided a scientific explanation for the loss. To lay a foundation for addressing this question, an accelerated evaporation apparatus was assembled that allowed sampling at regular time intervals from an evaporation flask and an attached cold trap. The decrease of DMTS concentrations in these samples was then followed by NMR and HPLC characterization, taking into consideration the susceptibility of DMTS to photolysis and thermolysis induced disproportionation. The rate of DMTS loss in this accelerated evaporation model system greatly exceeds natural rates of disproportionation, strongly suggesting that, under the conditions of accelerated evaporation, the preferential losses of DMTS are due primarily to direct preferential evaporation of DMTS, and with only very small contributions from the evaporation of disproportionation products. Under slower rates of evaporation, the indirect loss of DMTS via disproportionation pathways is expected to be more significant. ItemThe Role of Self-Stigma of Mediating the Association Between Externalizing and Treatment-Seeking(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Davis, Brianna Nicole; Drislane, Laura E; Russell, Tiffany D; Boccaccini, Marcus TSelf-stigma occurs when an individual internalizes and accepts the stereotypes and negative views of mental illness endorsed by the public. High levels of self-stigma negatively predict treatment-seeking behavior, but little work has examined how self-stigma functions specifically among individuals with tendencies toward impulsivity. The current study implemented linear multiple regression, PROCESS, and bivariate correlation analyses to investigate whether self-stigma mediated the relationship between externalizing proneness and treatment-seeking. Using data from community participants (n =394) preselected for externalizing and mental health concerns, externalizing negatively predicted treatment-seeking behaviors. This relation was mediated by self stigma, particularly at the later stages (e.g., application and harm to self). Exploratory moderated mediation analyses found that the negative relationship between self-stigma and treatment-seeking behaviors was stronger for individuals with a low-income. This study informs how targeting self-stigma could assist individuals with high externalizing proneness in seeking much-needed mental health care. ItemEXPLORING NOVEL CATALYSTS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION SYNTHESIS, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZINC AND GALLIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Oyegoke, Jamal; Trad, Tarek M; Thompson, David E; Hobbs, Christopher EZinc oxide (ZnO) possesses a non-centrosymmetric structure, which imparts it with piezoelectric properties, rendering it appealing for various technological applications involving nanostructured ZnO. In this investigation, the growth of ZnO surface structures was examined using Magnetite-Catalyzed Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The CVD technique offered control over reaction time, enabling precise growth of ZnO structures. Incorporating catalytic layers of magnetite nanoparticles promoted nucleation and facilitated the development of a distinct morphology resembling interconnected microsized flakes as observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also in this study, the impact of pressure on the morphology and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures synthesized through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was explored. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed changes in crystalline quality, size, and orientation of ZnO nanostructures at different pressure conditions. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed distinct morphologies, such as hexagonal rods and randomly arranged nanowires. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis provided information about the elemental composition, and photoluminescence measurements indicated excitonic and defect-related emissions. These findings demonstrate the significance of pressure in shaping the characteristics of ZnO nanostructures for potential nanodevice applications. Lastly, the synthesis of Ga2O3 nanostructures using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was explored. The growth mechanism involved metal adsorption on gold droplets on a heated substrate, followed by v oxygen integration into the nanowire's crystal lattice. X-ray diffraction confirmed specific lattice planes and orientations in the nanowires, with preferential alignment along the c-axis direction. SEM images showed well-controlled and uniform growth, with an average thickness of 65 nanometers. The β-Ga2O3 nanowires also demonstrated optical emission properties within the visible range. ItemINCREASING STUDENT SUCCESS THROUGH ACADEMIC VOCABULARY STRATEGIES IN 5th GRADE SCIENCE(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Ward, Candi Latrice; Haas, Lory E; Brooks, Benita R; Kinskey, Melanie E; Contreras-Vanegas, Alma LChildren with rich learning opportunities and experiences learn more, students who know more words, learn more, and simply put, students who have more vocabulary knowledge will acquire more context as it will be easier to soak up content (Marzano & Simms, 2013). The purpose of this study was to provide explicit vocabulary interventions to fifth grade students for ten weeks and determine if there was academic improvement from a pre to post-test. Additionally, teachers were asked to identify strengths and weaknesses of the interventions for the study and share perceptions every two weeks as they implemented the interventions with the diverse student populations of the chosen district. When meeting bi-weekly with teachers, they reported positive student interactions with science vocabulary happened during interventions as classroom stations were implemented. Quantitative results from the MAP assessment did not show a statistical difference in growth from the treatment and control groups for academic success. However, there was growth among students pre and post-tests for subpopulations and each group grew independently. Implications for the vocabulary interventions used and future research are discussed. Suggestions to expand the vocabulary interventions across content areas will help to solidify the importance of tier two and tier three words cross-curricular. The most important limitation discussed that is also a suggestion for future research is the length of the study; the idea is to broaden the length of the study to a year and dive deep into all science strands to practice the interventions year-long before giving the post test. ItemLIVED EXPERIENCES OF GAY BLACK CISGENDER MEN VICARIOUSLY EXPOSED TO THE ORLANDO SHOOTING(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Smith, Justyn; Garza-Chaves, Yvonne; Sullivan, Jeffrey M; Cofield, DemetriusThe purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences of gay Black cisgender men who were vicariously exposed to the 2016 Orlando Pulse nightclub shooting. Minority stress theory was the theoretical framework to ground this research study. This theory and lens was used to better understand the position of being a minority in society and the associated stress at the intersection community violence and identity. The study included 11 participants that identified as gay Black cisgender men using a combination of purposeful and snowball sampling. A demographic questionnaire was administered to gain background information about the participants in the study and a semi-structured interview protocol was used to gain qualitative data. Participants answered 11 demographic questions and 19 open ended questions. Three major themes emerged from the data: identity development, impact of media and post traumatic coping. Future research was suggested to explore the intersection of vicarious exposure to community violence and all identities within the LGBTQ community. The researcher made implications of the research to counseling and counselors in training. ItemSurvey of the Bee Genus Andrena (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) in the Trans Pecos Region with an Assessment of Biogeography and Discovery of Isolated Sky Island Species(2023-08-01T05:00:00.000Z) Zabinski, Wyatt James; Cook, Jerry L; Cook, Tamara J; Pascarella, JohnThe genus Andrena (Andrenidae) is a species rich group of ground nesting solitary bees containing ~1,500 species worldwide and with many species left to be discovered. There are about 500 species of Andrena in the United States. Sky Islands are high elevation mountain areas that have distinctly different vegetation and climates compared to the low elevations below them. Throughout the Southwestern United States and the inland areas of North to Central Mexico there are many of these high elevation Sky Island mountains scattered throughout vast stretches of low elevation desert environments. However, the melittofauna from these mountain areas are still poorly known. During this study, a total of 29 species of Andrena were found to occur within Brewster, Presidio, and Jeff Davis counties of West Texas. A key to all species male and female was created to assist future collection identification of species from these counties. The biogeography of all species was assessed within the study area to determine what biogeographical category they fit into. Six biogeographical categories were created to represent different environments of West Texas study area. Additionally, six species of Andrena were discovered to be isolated to Sky Island environments. Evidence for what is keeping these species isolated to these Sky Islands, as well as how these species became isolated, is addressed. This research has opened many potential future research opportunities including species origins, diversification, genetics/gene flow between populations, and implications of climate change on these Sky Island environments. ItemThe Ties that Bind Us to Society: Siblings, Social Bonds, and Antisocial Behavior(2023-08-01T06:00:00.000Z) Woeckener, Matthias James; Boisvert, Danielle L.; Randa, Ryan W; Connolly, Eric JThe research examining the connection between social bonds and antisocial behavior has been extensive and multifaceted, taking various factors such as peer affiliation and sex differences into consideration. Additionally, an emphasis on the type of antisocial behavior most effectively explained by social bonds has been explore. What has not been explored in great depth, however, is the enduring effect of social bonds over time or how social bonds influence differences, if any among and between sibling dyads. The research examining social bonds has largely overlooked any potential variation in social bond influence on antisocial behavior that may exist within families. This study sought to examine how the influence of social bonds on antisocial behavior varies, with a particular emphasis on siblings and sex differences. Results revealed that although limited, social bonds significantly affect nonviolent behavior propensity while considering the influence of biological sex. These findings are discussed in the context of social bonds theory with a discussion about criminological theory more broadly. ItemViolence to Self and Others: The Relationship between Minority Stress, Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration, and Suicidal Ideation(2023-08-02T04:00:00.000Z) McCartin, Hadley; Russell, Tiffany D; Ruchensky, Jared R; Drislane, Laura ESexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for suicidal ideation (SI) and intimate partner violence (IPV) compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Haas et al., 2010; Messinger, 2017). SI and IPV perpetuation generally co-occur (Blosnich & Bossarte, 2011), and while they share similar risk factors (e.g., Franklin et al., 2017), LGB+ people might have a unique relationship between SI and IPV due to minority stress. Minority stress is associated with greater levels of SI and IPV perpetration in sexual minority people (Baams et al., 2015; Longobardi & Badenes-Ribera, 2017). Past research has explored these variables, but it has not analyzed how minority stress might explain a co-occurrence of SI and IPV in sexual minority individuals. The current study analyzed the relationship between the propensity to use physical IPV, SI, and minority stress in a sample of 270 LGB+ university students in Southeast Texas. Propensity for physical IPV was expected to directly predict SI. Additionally, minority stress was expected to partially mediate the relationship between the propensity for physical IPV and SI. Structural equation modeling tested the hypotheses. Contrary to predictions, direct and indirect pathways were not statistically significant. Of note, the study included primarily bisexual women, which could prevent these findings from generalizing to sexual minority individuals more broadly. Future studies could diversify their samples, use different measures, and analyze longitudinal data to further explore this research question.