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ItemA Distribution-free Convolution Model for Background Correction of Oligonucleotide Microarray Data(BMC Genomics, 2009-07-07) Chen, Zhongxue; McGee, Monnie; Liu, Qingzhong; Kong, Megan; Deng, Youpin; Schuermann, Richard HIntroduction: Affymetrix GeneChip® high-density oligonucleotide arrays are widely used in biological and medical research because of production reproducibility, which facilitates the comparison of results between experiment runs. In order to obtain high-level classification and cluster analysis that can be trusted, it is important to perform various pre-processing steps on the probe-level data to control for variability in sample processing and array hybridization. Many proposed preprocessing methods are parametric, in that they assume that the background noise generated by microarray data is a random sample from a statistical distribution, typically a normal distribution. The quality of the final results depends on the validity of such assumptions. Results: We propose a Distribution Free Convolution Model (DFCM) to circumvent observed deficiencies in meeting and validating distribution assumptions of parametric methods. Knowledge of array structure and the biological function of the probes indicate that the intensities of mismatched (MM) probes that correspond to the smallest perfect match (PM) intensities can be used to estimate the background noise. Specifically, we obtain the smallest q2 percent of the MM intensities that are associated with the lowest q1 percent PM intensities, and use these intensities to estimate background. Conclusion: Using the Affymetrix Latin Square spike-in experiments, we show that the background noise generated by microarray experiments typically is not well modeled by a single overall normal distribution. We further show that the signal is not exponentially distributed, as is also commonly assumed. Therefore, DFCM has better sensitivity and specificity, as measured by ROC curves and area under the curve (AUC) than MAS 5.0, RMA, RMA with no background correction (RMA-noBG), GCRMA, PLIER, and dChip (MBEI) for preprocessing of Affymetrix microarray data. These results hold for two spike-in data sets and one real data set that were analyzed. Comparisons with other methods on two spike-in data sets and one real data set show that our nonparametric methods are a superior alternative for background correction of Affymetrix data. ItemA gene selection method for GeneChip array data with small sample sizes(2010-07) Chen, Zhongxue; Liu, Qingzhong; McGee, Monnie; Kong, Megan; Huang, Xudong; Deng, Youpin; Scheuermann, Richard H.In microarray experiments with small sample sizes, it is a challenge to estimate p-values accurately and decide cutoff p-values for gene selection appropriately. Although permutation-based methods have proved to have greater sensitivity and specificity than the regular t-test, their p-values are highly discrete due to the limited number of permutations available in very small sample sizes. Furthermore, estimated permutation-based p-values for true nulls are highly correlated and not uniformly distributed between zero and one, making it difficult to use current false discovery rate (FDR)-controlling methods. Results: We propose a model-based information sharing method (MBIS) that, after an appropriate data transformation, utilizes information shared among genes. We use a normal distribution to model the mean differences of true nulls across two experimental conditions. The parameters of the model are then estimated using all data in hand. Based on this model, p-values, which are uniformly distributed from true nulls, are calculated. Then, since FDR-controlling methods are generally not well suited to microarray data with very small sample sizes, we select genes for a given cutoff p-value and then estimate the false discovery rate. Conclusion: Simulation studies and analysis using real microarray data show that the proposed method, MBIS, is more powerful and reliable than current methods. It has wide application to a variety of situations. ItemA Logic Approach to Granular computing(International Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence, 2008-04) Bing, Zhou; Yiyu, YaoGranular computing is an emerging field of study that attempts to formalize and explore methods and heuristics of human problem solving with multiple levels of granularity and abstraction. A fundamental issue of granular computing is the representation and utilization of granular structures. The main objective of this article is to examine a logic approach to address this issue. Following the classical interpretation of a concept as a pair of intension and extension, we interpret a granule as a pair of a set of objects and a logic formula describing the granule. The building blocks of granular structures are basic granules representing an elementary concept or a piece of knowledge. They are treated as atomic formulas of a logic language. Different types of granular structures can be constructed by using logic connectives. Within this logic framework, we show that rough set analysis (RSA) and formal concept analysis (FCA) can be interpreted uniformly. The two theories use multilevel granular structures but differ in their choices of definable granules and granular structures. ItemA new statistical approach to combining p-values using gamma distribution and its application to genome-wide association study(BMC Bioinformatics, 2014-12-16) Liu, Qingzhong; Chen, Zhongxue; Yang, William; Yang, Jack Y; Li, Jing; Yang, Mary QuBackground: Combining information from different studies is an important and useful practice in bioinformatics, including genome-wide association study, rare variant data analysis and other set-based analyses. Many statistical methods have been proposed to combine p-values from independent studies. However, it is known that there is no uniformly most powerful test under all conditions; therefore, finding a powerful test in specific situation is important and desirable. Results: In this paper, we propose a new statistical approach to combining p-values based on gamma distribution, which uses the inverse of the p-value as the shape parameter in the gamma distribution. Conclusions: Simulation study and real data application demonstrate that the proposed method has good performance under some situations. ItemAcademic Achievement for Fifth-Grade Students in Elementary and Intermediate School Settings: Grade Span Configurations(Current Issues in Education, 2011) Combs, Julie P.; Clark, David M; Moore, George W.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony K.; Edmonson, Stacy L.; Slate, John R.Few researchers have addressed student achievement outcomes as a function of grade span configurations for older elementary-aged students. Thus, this study was designed to determine differences between students’ Grade 5 reading and mathematics achievement in elementary schools (K–5) as compared to intermediate schools (Grade 5, 5–6) for 5 academic years. Using archival statewide data, researchers used a rigorous five-step distance-based formula to match elementary schools to intermediate schools on four demographic/school characteristic variables. Students in K-5 settings attained statistically significantly higher levels of reading and mathematics achievement than did their counterparts, with moderate mean effect sizes of 0.37 and 0.47, respectively. ItemThe #acadv Community: Networked Practices, Professional Development, and Ongoing Knowledge Sharing in Advising(NACADA Journal, 2019) Pasquini, Laura A.; Eaton, Paul WilliamThe #acadv Twitter chat is an organic, online community of higher education academic advising professionals. Using a longitudinal study, we explored the way a self-directed learning network sustains ongoing professional development and knowledge sharing by examining the archives of 203 structured online discussions. In mapping the chat topics to published core competencies, we discovered that this advising community scaffolds on-demand learning for discussion of advising approaches and strategies, distribution of resources for supporting student success, collective sharing of personal advising philosophies, and encouragement to engage in reflective assessment about advising practice. Community members are motivated to contribute to networked practice to enhance professional development activities, share open educational practices, and support advising competency development in an occupational community of practice. ItemAdolescent suicidal behaviors, self rated health and multiple health risk behaviors: Exploring new perspectives in suicide prevention research(Academic Journals (Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology), 2010) Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Walker, Ashley Dawn; Agbanu, Harry; Clark, AlenaWe sought to evaluate the extent to which self-rating of health, gender, and the co-occurrence of other health risk behaviors were related to suicidal behaviors among adolescents. Cross-sectional survey data of Colorado middle and high school students aged 12 to 18 years were analyzed using logistic regression. Main outcome variables were suicide ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempt. Predictors included self-rated health, self-reported health behaviors, perception of body image, expression of sadness and hopelessness, self-reported sexual abuse, self-reported access to lethal weapon, and expression of school safety concerns. Adjusted results showed respondents with poor health rating had significantly higher odds of suicidal ideation (OR: 2.22), suicidal planning (OR: 1.35), and suicide attempt (OR: 2.23). Reporting of hopelessness was the most consistent predictor of suicidal behaviors with odds ratios ranging from 5.57 (for suicidal ideation) to 17.40 (for suicidal attempt). Factors associated with different adolescents’ suicidal behaviors were different for boys and girls. Findings suggest the need to consider gender differences as regards self assessment of health in order to improve the effectiveness of suicide interventions among adolescents. ItemAge Differences and Changes in Resources Essential to Aging Well: A Comparison of Sexagenarians, Octogenarians, and Centenarians(Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 2011-08-05) Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary AnnThis study examined change over time in five resources assessed by the Duke OARS Multidisciplinary Functional Assessment Questionnaire: social, economic, mental, physical, and functional resources. Two hundred and one participants in the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this longitudinal study: 70 sexagenarians, 63 octogenarians, and 68 centenarians. Those in their 60s and 80s were followed up within 60 months; due to mortality attrition, centenarians were followed up within 20 months. Centenarians experienced the lowest levels of resources relative to those in their 80s and 60s. Over time they primarily experienced loss in activities of daily living, highlighting that the ability to maximize gains and mitigate losses over time for older adults is highly associated with various resources essential to well-being. Findings suggest that older adults’—especially the very old—resources should be concurrently assessed in a multidimensional analysis by researchers and practitioners who work with older adults in various settings. ItemAnalysis Report: Survey on the Needs of SHSU’s Hispanic/Latinx Student Population(Center for Multicultural and Rural Development, 2021-09-03) French, Leif; Hasler-Barker, Maria; Roberts, Matthew; Artamonova, Tatiana; Feu, Montse; Velasquez, EdnaThe purpose of the CMRD Hispanic/Latinx (HLx) Survey and report is to deepen our understanding of the profile and needs of Sam Houston State University’s (SHSU) unique HLx student population. Rather than extrapolating information about our HLx population from broader demographic data and trends in higher education, we have dedicated resources to collect a comprehensive and detailed survey corpus from nearly 700 SHSU undergraduate and graduate students who self-identify as HLx. The high participant response rate is indicative of this population’s desire for their voices to be heard as a key constituency at SHSU. We are confident that our findings about students’ backgrounds, experiences, and needs will be important to providing the best possible support and services to HLx students as this population continues to grow at SHSU. ItemAndrew Jackson and Gamal Abdul-Nasser: A Behavioral Study in Comparative Political Leadership(University of Utah, 1971) Souryal, Safwat SabitThe purpose of the present study is twofold: (1) to examine the essential components of leadership in general and charismatic leadership in particular, and (2) to deduce some predictive generalizations pertaining to the emergence, consolidation and termination of charismatic leadership. With these objectives in mind, an attempt has been made to apply the behavioral approach as well as the analytical approach to the leadership of both President Andrew Jackson of the United States of America (1828-1836) and President Gamal Abdul-Nasser of the United Arab Republic (1952-1970)—as case studies. The initial hypotheses which underlie the investigation are the following: 1. Both Presidents were charismatic leaders. 2. Both Presidents acted in the best interests of their countries as they saw fit. 3. Both Presidents, as individuals, matched each other in their socio-psychological settings. 4. Both Presidents encountered separate socio-political situations which might be labelled similar. 5. In displaying their charismatic leadership, both Presidents shared many politico-behavioral uniformities under parallel situations. 6. Some generalizations about charismatic leadership might be deduced from the comparison between the two cases. 7. These generalizations might be of a predictive nature and as such would be helpful in future cross-cultural leadership studies. In this dissertation, a study of the parallel situations brought into focus the following analogies: 1. The Jacksonian Democracy and the Nasserite Socialism. 2. Jackson’s war against the Bank and Nasser's war against Feudalism. 3. Jackson’s war against the Nullifiers and Nasser’s war against the Syrian secessionists. 4. Jackson’s Spoils System and Nasser’s Militarized Bureaucracy. This research produced two sets of results: One set supports the first five hypotheses listed above (which postulate possible similarities between the two leaders). This set was reached by a qualitative analysis of the parallel situations and was substantiated by two methods of quantitative analysis (a content analysis and a questionnaire). In light of this set of results, Jackson and Nasser are seen as sharing a considerable degree of similarity with regards to their charismatic leadership. The other set yields the predictive generalizations anticipated by the last two hypotheses. Because these generalizations presuppose the first set of results, they have been considered the main conclusions of this dissertation. These generalizations are the following: 1. Two independent variables perceived as extremely important in understanding charismatic leadership are personal traits and situational performance. 2. Charismatic potential develops in a leader by a certain merger of his personal traits and his performance style. This merger produces a state of dormant charisma. Dormant charisma flowers when it receives favorable popular support and becomes activated charisma; dormant charisma dies when such support is denied. 3. The effectiveness of charismatic leadership depends on the leader's ability to maintain the charismatization bond between himself and the masses. 4. Charismatic leaders who come from lower social classes tend to be aggressive, violent, and perhaps vindictive. They are Inclined to deploy vociferous ideologies and try to uphold this deployment by repression. In the process of formulating these generalizations, the concept of charisma first initiated by Max Weber has been given a new operational application; namely, the concept of charismatization as presented in this research. The goal of this dissertation has been to make a modest contribution to the study of cross-cultural charismatic leadership. It is hoped that this inquiry will be supplemented by other studies of analogous personalities and that the combined efforts invested in such studies will ultimately transpire in the establishment of an acceptable theory of charismatic leadership. ItemAndroid System Partition to Traffic Data?(International Journal of Knowledge Engineering, 2017-12) Bing, Zhou; Liu, Qingzhong; Byrd, BrittanyThe familiarity and prevalence of mobile devices inflates their use as instruments of crime. Law enforcement personnel and mobile forensics investigators, are constantly battling to gain the upper-hand at developing a standardized system able to comprehensively identify and resolve the vulnerabilities present within the mobile device platform. The Android mobile platform can be perceived as an antagonist to this objective, as its open nature provides attackers direct insight into the internalization and security features of the most popular platform presently in the consumer market. This paper identifies and demonstrates the system partition in an Android smartphone as a viable attack vector for covert data trafficking. An implementation strategy (comprised of four experimental phases) is developed to exploit the internal memory of a non-activated rooted Android HTC Desire 510 4g smartphone. A set of mobile forensics tools: AccessData Mobile Phone Examiner Plus (MPE+ v5.5.6), Oxygen Forensic Suite 2015 Standard, and Google Android Debug Bridge adb were used for the extraction and analysis process. The data analysis found the proposed approach to be a persistent and minimally detectable method to exchange data ItemApplying mindfulness to influence the patient and care team experience.(Sciedu (Journal of Nursing Education and Practice), 2018) Singh, Keerat S.; Davis, Patricia; Cockerham, MonaObjective:In today’s work environment, specifically in health care, mindfulness is a personal and professional strategy to improve performance and productivity. To influence the patient and care team hospital experience through the concepts of mindfulness and perception.Methods:This was a prospective observational project completed by medical/surgical nurses using an online survey pre- and post an educational program and an aggregate score of the 5 nurse-sensitive questions on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey, a survey based in the United States that is mailed to patients post discharge to home to measure patient satisfaction with their hospitalization. The HCAHPS survey is a patient satisfaction survey required by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for all hospitals in the United States. The purpose of the HCAHPS survey is to provide a standardized survey instrument and data collection methodology for measuring patients’ perspectives on their hospital care and hospital experience.Results:The aggregate nurse-sensitive HCAHPS scores increased from 85.5 to 89.8 over one month. For mindfulness, after the educational program, among the ten nurse survey questions the percentage went up as much as 0.57%. Conclusions: An educational program related to the benefits of mindfulness can positively effect nurses’ engagement in the workplace and positively increase HCAHPS scores. Continuing education on mindfulness should carry over month to month.In this research project, participants provided feedback to the researcher of feeling empowered to bring in new ideas, present different ways to grow, and tackle challenges ItemAre Serials Worth Their Weight in Knowledge? A Value Study(Journal of Academic Librarianship (Elsevier), 2015-09) Jones, Glenda Flanagan; Cassidy, Erin Dorris; McMain, Lynn; Strickland, Susan; Thompson, Molly; Valdes, ZacharyThe researchers aimed to use qualitative measures to define value as applied to print and electronic serial publications held at Sam Houston State University. Researchers examined faculty key activities—namely, Research, Publishing, Course Preparation and Development, Service, and Personal Interests—and also asked about the perceived extent of support that library journals provided for these key activities. The results of a survey sent to the faculty of two major colleges, Education and Criminal Justice, emphasized the importance of electronic over print serials for research, publishing, and teaching. Many respondents reported that they never used print serials for key activities but have recently used electronic serials. The print serial collection was reported to provide only minor support for the key activities whereas the electronic serials collection was reported to support those to a major extent. Most faculty respondents reported that they would drop subscriptions to personal interest journals if the Library obtained electronic access. ItemArticle Showcases Pitcairn Tapa with Women of the Bounty & The Art of Pitcairn(Pitcairn Log, 2023) Albert, Donald PatrickAuthors Donald Patrick Albert and Matthew Purifoy encourage PISG members to download and print (free) their study titled “Repositioning Pitcairn’s Tapa: Detecting the Voices of the Forgotten Women of Bounty.” ItemAssessment of gene order computing methods for Alzheimer’s disease(BMC Medical Genomics, 2013-01-23) Liu, Qingzhong; Hu, Benqiong; Pang, Chaoyang; Wang, Shipend; Chen, Zhongxue; Vanderburg, Charles R; Rogers, Jack T.; Deng, Youping; Huang, Xudong; Jiang, GangBackground: Computational genomics of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of senile dementia, is a nascent field in AD research. The field includes AD gene clustering by computing gene order which generates higher quality gene clustering patterns than most other clustering methods. However, there are few available gene order computing methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Further, their performance in gene order computation using AD microarray data is not known. We thus set forth to evaluate the performances of current gene order computing methods with different distance formulas, and to identify additional features associated with gene order computation. Methods: Using different distance formulas- Pearson distance and Euclidean distance, the squared Euclidean distance, and other conditions, gene orders were calculated by ACO and GA (including standard GA and improved GA) methods, respectively. The qualities of the gene orders were compared, and new features from the calculated gene orders were identified. Results: Compared to the GA methods tested in this study, ACO fits the AD microarray data the best when calculating gene order. In addition, the following features were revealed: different distance formulas generated a different quality of gene order, and the commonly used Pearson distance was not the best distance formula when used with both GA and ACO methods for AD microarray data. Conclusion: Compared with Pearson distance and Euclidean distance, the squared Euclidean distance generated the best quality gene order computed by GA and ACO methods. ItemAssociation between depressive symptoms in adolescence and birth outcomes in early adulthood using a population-based sample(Elsevier (Preventive Medicine Reports), 2015) Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Tettey, GraceBackground Adolescent female depressive symptomatology is an unrecognized mood disorder that impairs health in adolescence or adulthood. However, the long-term effects of pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms on birth outcomes in adulthood have not been given adequate empirical assessments. Results Exposure to elevated depressive symptoms in late adolescence, but not in adulthood, was associated with increased odds of LBW by more than 2-fold in early and young adulthoods (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.19; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.56, 3.08). Depressive symptoms in early adulthood were independently associated with increased odds of PTB and were higher for black mothers. Maternal race modified the relationship between consistent reporting of depressive symptoms in adolescence and LBW or PTB in adulthood. Conclusion This study provides compelling evidence that effects of elevated depressive symptomatology on LBW or PTB appear to be linked to a specific development period in adolescence. National policies to address social inequalities and stratification particularly in health at all stages of human development, will provide an important step in reducing depressive symptoms prior to early adulthood and in pregnancy and childbirth. ItemAssociation between Handwashing Behavior and Infectious Diseases among Low-Income Community Children in Urban New Delhi, India: A Cross-Sectional Study(International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021-11) Khan, Khalid M.; Chakraborty, Rishika; Brown, Stephen L.; Sultana, Rasheda; Colon, Alec; Toor, Devinder; Upreti, Pooja; Sen, BanalataDiarrheal diseases and respiratory infections (RI) are two leading causes of childhood mortality in low and middle-income countries. Effective handwashing at critical time-points may mitigate these diseases. However, there is a lack of published data investigating this association in school-aged children in India. This study is part of a larger prospective handwashing intervention study in a low-income community in New Delhi, India examining the associations between handwashing behavior and diarrhea and RI in schoolchildren. This current study reports the findings of the baseline survey administered to 272 mother–child dyads. Children aged 8–12 years, and their mothers, were recruited from six schools. A baseline questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, handwash behavior, and mother-reported recent diarrhea and RI incidence among the children. Handwashing before and after preparing food, after defecation, and after cleaning dishes significantly reduced the odds of diarrhea by over 70%, and of RI by over 56%. Using a clean cloth after handwashing lowered odds of diarrhea and RI by 72% and 63% respectively. Around 60% of the participants believed that handwashing could prevent diarrhea and RI in their children. There was a low prevalence of handwashing at critical time-points and a poor perception regarding handwashing benefits. To improve handwashing behavior, hygiene promotion programs need to understand what motivates and hinders handwashing in vulnerable populations. ItemAttack Modeling and Mitigation Strategies for Risk-Based Analysis of Networked Medical Devices(Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2020-01) Hodges, Bronwyn J.; McDonald, J. Todd; Glisson, William Bradley; Jacobs, Michael; Van Devender, Maureen; Pardue, J. HaroldThe escalating integration of network-enabled medical devices raises concerns for both practitioners and academics in terms of introducing new vulnerabilities and attack vectors. This prompts the idea that combining medical device data, security vulnerability enumerations, and attack-modeling data into a single database could enable security analysts to proactively identify potential security weaknesses in medical devices and formulate appropriate mitigation and remediation plans. This study introduces a novel extension to a relational database risk assessment framework by using the open-source tool OVAL to capture device states and compare them to security advisories that warn of threats and vulnerabilities, and where threats and vulnerabilities exist provide mitigation recommendations. The contribution of this research is a proof of concept evaluation that demonstrates the integration of OVAL and CAPEC attack patterns for analysis using a database-driven risk assessment framework. ItemAttack-Graph Threat Modeling Assessment of Ambulatory Medical Devices(Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2017-01) Luckett, Patrick; McDonald, J. Todd; Glisson, William BradleyThe continued integration of technology into all aspects of society stresses the need to identify and understand the risk associated with assimilating new technologies. This necessity is heightened when technology is used for medical purposes like ambulatory devices that monitor a patient’s vital signs. This integration creates environments that are conducive to malicious activities. The potential impact presents new challenges for the medical community. \ \ Hence, this research presents attack graph modeling as a viable solution to identifying vulnerabilities, assessing risk, and forming mitigation strategies to defend ambulatory medical devices from attackers. Common and frequent vulnerabilities and attack strategies related to the various aspects of ambulatory devices, including Bluetooth enabled sensors and Android applications are identified in the literature. Based on this analysis, this research presents an attack graph modeling example on a theoretical device that highlights vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies to consider when designing ambulatory devices with similar components. ItemAustin MacCormick: A Champion for Texas Prisoners(Journal of South Texas, 2020) Elkins, Susan; Kim, Dianna; Shotwell, TrentAustin Harbutt MacCormick (1893-1979) spent much of his professional career serving as a proponent of prison reform. Beginning with his 1915 college graduation essay focused on the subject and continuing throughout the majority of his life, he arduously fought for improvements in prison conditions and the education of incarcerated Americans. His impact on Texas prisons is still felt today. MacCormick investigated 110 of 114 prisons throughout the United States and in 1944 was asked to visit and evaluate the Texas prison system. He was appalled by the conditions he observed. Prisoner dormitories, called “tanks” were reminiscent of slave ships. In rebellion from either being forced to work from sunrise to sundown or from the dismal quality of life in the tanks, prisoners frequently (nearly 100 incidences per year) mutilated themselves by slicing through their Achilles tendons or by threading their arms through their cell bars to break their bones with a twist. MacCormick met teenage boys who had cut off most of their fingers in despair. Others cut holes in their skin and poured lye into the wounds. Sometimes prisoners did the mutilating themselves; other times they forced fellow prisoners at knifepoint to do the deed. The self-mutilation taking place in Texas was like nothing McCormick had ever seen in any other prison system. MacCormick’s assessment of the Texas State Prison resulted in the issuance of an internal report identifying countless problems: ineffectual administration, inadequately-trained personnel, terrible living conditions, outmoded farming techniques, vicious discipline, poor medical services, lack of industry and a complete void of rehabilitative procedures. The situation was so grave that MacCormick rated the Texas prison system as one of the worst in the United States. Although he revisited the Walls on several occasions hoping to observe improvements, it soon became apparent that without public outcry Texas would do nothing to change their miserable circumstances. Finally, in 1947 when 45 prisoners escaped from the Walls within one month (more escapees than the Federal Prisons had experienced in a year), MacCormick wired Governor Beauford Jester in anger. The result? With widespread support from both the press and public, Jester lobbied for reform and received the backing of the Texas Board of Criminal Justice. Texas prisons then initiated comprehensive reforms which made Texas one of the top prison systems in the country. The reforms set into motion by MacCormick had a massive impact on the Texas prison system. He truly was a champion for Texas prisoners.