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ItemAndrew Jackson and Gamal Abdul-Nasser: A Behavioral Study in Comparative Political Leadership(University of Utah, 1971) Souryal, Safwat SabitThe purpose of the present study is twofold: (1) to examine the essential components of leadership in general and charismatic leadership in particular, and (2) to deduce some predictive generalizations pertaining to the emergence, consolidation and termination of charismatic leadership. With these objectives in mind, an attempt has been made to apply the behavioral approach as well as the analytical approach to the leadership of both President Andrew Jackson of the United States of America (1828-1836) and President Gamal Abdul-Nasser of the United Arab Republic (1952-1970)—as case studies. The initial hypotheses which underlie the investigation are the following: 1. Both Presidents were charismatic leaders. 2. Both Presidents acted in the best interests of their countries as they saw fit. 3. Both Presidents, as individuals, matched each other in their socio-psychological settings. 4. Both Presidents encountered separate socio-political situations which might be labelled similar. 5. In displaying their charismatic leadership, both Presidents shared many politico-behavioral uniformities under parallel situations. 6. Some generalizations about charismatic leadership might be deduced from the comparison between the two cases. 7. These generalizations might be of a predictive nature and as such would be helpful in future cross-cultural leadership studies. In this dissertation, a study of the parallel situations brought into focus the following analogies: 1. The Jacksonian Democracy and the Nasserite Socialism. 2. Jackson’s war against the Bank and Nasser's war against Feudalism. 3. Jackson’s war against the Nullifiers and Nasser’s war against the Syrian secessionists. 4. Jackson’s Spoils System and Nasser’s Militarized Bureaucracy. This research produced two sets of results: One set supports the first five hypotheses listed above (which postulate possible similarities between the two leaders). This set was reached by a qualitative analysis of the parallel situations and was substantiated by two methods of quantitative analysis (a content analysis and a questionnaire). In light of this set of results, Jackson and Nasser are seen as sharing a considerable degree of similarity with regards to their charismatic leadership. The other set yields the predictive generalizations anticipated by the last two hypotheses. Because these generalizations presuppose the first set of results, they have been considered the main conclusions of this dissertation. These generalizations are the following: 1. Two independent variables perceived as extremely important in understanding charismatic leadership are personal traits and situational performance. 2. Charismatic potential develops in a leader by a certain merger of his personal traits and his performance style. This merger produces a state of dormant charisma. Dormant charisma flowers when it receives favorable popular support and becomes activated charisma; dormant charisma dies when such support is denied. 3. The effectiveness of charismatic leadership depends on the leader's ability to maintain the charismatization bond between himself and the masses. 4. Charismatic leaders who come from lower social classes tend to be aggressive, violent, and perhaps vindictive. They are Inclined to deploy vociferous ideologies and try to uphold this deployment by repression. In the process of formulating these generalizations, the concept of charisma first initiated by Max Weber has been given a new operational application; namely, the concept of charismatization as presented in this research. The goal of this dissertation has been to make a modest contribution to the study of cross-cultural charismatic leadership. It is hoped that this inquiry will be supplemented by other studies of analogous personalities and that the combined efforts invested in such studies will ultimately transpire in the establishment of an acceptable theory of charismatic leadership. ItemStopped for a Traffic Ticket: A Getaway Scale Index(Sentry, 1979) Souryal, Sam S.Have you ever wondered why you wind up each year with more traffic tickets than your friends whom you consider worse drivers than you are? The chances are they talk their way out of them, at least some. They know how to cultivate the officers tactfully, how to sell them a good story, and how to secure their collaboration. These are obviously delicate tasks which involve considerable risks. In order to be able to handle these tasks successfully you must have a talent for game planning and strategy. More importantly, before you attempt to play the game of evading traffic tickets you must be better informed about your chances. It is, therefore, important and necessary that you familiarize yourself with the Getaway Scale Index (GSI). In ItemPolice Training and Police Professionalism in Egypt(Police Chief, 1983-04) Souryal, SamA small portion of the police community in the U. S. are familiar with Egypt beyond perhaps being the "cradle of ancient civilization", a developing nation, a Muslim society, and the birthplace of President Sadat who immortalized the essence of peace by single handedly making peace with Israel and later giving his life for his chivalrous endeavor. Domestic peace in Egypt, however, must be another prominent Egyptian feature to be reckoned with especially in an age characterized with soaring crime rates and an obsessive fear of walking in the streets of most large cities in the world today. Not only can citizens and foreigners walk the streets of the capital city of Cairo at any time (by day or by night) with almost safety, crime rates in all Egyptian cities have been virtually going down. As Frank Morn, a University of Chicago criminologist, put it in a recent article, "in relation to its population growth and compared to Western societies, Egypt has a negligible crime problem". ItemLaw, Crime and Society in Islamic Jurisprudence(Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1987-12) Souryal, Sam S.Judging the religiosity of individuals 1s difficult in itself, is often misleading, and is biblically condemned. Juding the religiosity of societies can be easier since in their aggregate, and in comparison with each other, a distinctive character of docility, of routine activities, and of effective social control can be discerned. Using crime rates as the main indicator, this article attempts t.o examine and explain the religiosity of the Saudi Arabian society since it claims a high level of benevolence due to the application of Shariah (divine) law. The methodology focused on the scrutinization of crime rates in the Kingdom and contrasted them with six Moslem adjacent countries in the region which do not apply Shariah law. The Saudi crime rate was dramatically lower than the median rate among the group, as well as considerably lower than in any individual country. Criminal data were further validated and interpreted by the use of three local self-reporting panels of judges, police officials, and laymen. Conclusions represent a synthesis of the unique role of Shariah law, the infrequency of criminal mc1dents, and ethnographic information collected from personal interviews conducted during a sabbatical leave the author spent m the Kingdom. The study shows that the continuing application of Shariah Jaw in Saudi Arabia has a powerful cleansing influence on society, helps foster a non-criminogenic environment, and confirms some major theories in the literature in religiosity and socialization. ItemComments on the Essence of Management(Justice Professional, 1988) Souryal, Sam S.The purpose of this article is to articulate the essence of management "outside the shop," through a process of fine tuning based on contrasting its tenets with those of the traditionally better known concept of organization. The format used is unorthodox. The article will mimimize the conventional narrative and condense the comparison into taxonomical tables, each with two columns; one illustrating organization, and the other illustrating management. This format is deemed most conducive to clarity and comparability. A brief reiteration of the concepts of administration, organization, and management will be presented first. These will be followed by four tables representing the perspective from theory, from practice, and from the perceptions of workers and of supervisors. ItemCriminal Justice and Policing in the Kingdom of Nepal(Journal of CJ International, 1988-03) Souryal, Sam S.Nestled in the cradle of the highest mountains on earth, it is not surprising that Nepal has come to be known as the kingdom where deities mingle with mortals. In the Nepalese Himalaya, called the "Abode of the Gods," there is Mount Everest, the world's greatest peak also known as Sagarmatha or "The Brow of the Oceans" by the Nepalese. Local Sherpa artists picture the peak as the god Chomolungma riding a snow lion through clouds of many hues (Anderson, 1985). ItemThe Global Poultry Agro/Food Complex(International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 1991) Constance, Douglas H.; Heffernan, William D.The globalization of the food system is a topic of growing concern as various nation/states try to obtain food security. This analysis test the hypothesis of the existence of a poultry agro/food complex being constructed by transnational corporations. We focus on the concept of "global sourcing" and argue that the rise in economic power of transnational corporations limits the abilities of individual nation/st.ates to direct their agricultural policies toward national ends. We also argue that with the increasing transnational character of the large corporations the usefulness of individual nation/states or individual commodities as units of analysis decreases. We conclude that U.S., European. and Japanese transnational corporations arc indeed creating a global poultry agro/food complex based on the concept of "global sourcing'', Our findings also suggest that these same transnational corporations are very active in several other commodity sectors. ItemThe Globalization of the Agricultural and Food Sector and Theories of the State(International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 1991) Bananno, AlessandroThe paper investigates the theoretical dislocation between the domestic oriented character of theories of the State and the transnational character of theories of socio-economic development. Employing the case of the food and agricultural sector, it is argued that the literature in this area has emphasized the transnational dimension of capital accumulation and the process of by-passing State authority at the national level. This situaion mandates a re-evaluation of State theories in regard to the international dimension of current processes of capital accumulation. Furthermore, the present analysis suggests patterns of "contradictory convergence" in which expansion at the transnational level of State action is demanded by transnational corporations and subordinate classes alike. This demand, however, is contradictory, as it finds its limits in the transnational bourgeoisie's desire to avoid State action. Politically, as a result of this situation the locus of emancipatory social action should be increasingly transferred to the international arena. ItemTheory, Epistemology and Critical Rural Sociology(International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 1992) Bonanno, Alessandro; Swanson, Louis E.This paper would like to provide an alternative to the Marx-Weber dichotomy which has recently emerged in rural sociological studies. It consists of the re-proposition of critical sociology as a mode of scientific investigation which, while remaining within the Marxian tradition, addresses many of the central concerns of Weberian scholarship. Though a merger between Marx and Weber is not proposed, it is assumed that a lack of knowledge of critical sociology has hampered further development of the theoretical debate in rural sociology. More importantly, this lack of knowledge has prevented the diffusion of the basic tenets of critical sociology among sociologists concerned with the study of agriculture and food, limiting their ability to inform empirical investigations and to instruct students. ItemStructural relations and Finnish-English code switching(Linguistics, 1993) Halmari, HelenaWhile several initially convincing code-switching theories have been proposed, the introduction of a new pair of code-switched languages often seems to present puzzles to the earlier proposed constraints. In this paper I will present data from Finnish-English code switching, attempting to explain the constraints on intrasentential switches in this language, which relies heavily on inflectional morphology. I will suggest that, despite the fact that many of the earlier proposed code-switching constraints seem to fail to explain the Finnish-English data, no special new code-switching theory is needed to account for the Finnish-English facts, but the general syntactic principle of government can account for the constraints on intra- sentential switching. The most characteristic feature of Finnish-English code switching is morphological assimilation to Finnish. This can be explained by the government constraint: insertion of lexical items to terminal nodes from English is always possible, provided that case and agreement morphology are in Finnish when in government relation with Finnish elements. This paper thus gives support to the basic idea of the government constraint proposed by Di Sciullo et al. (1986) and suggests a minor reformulation to their theory. The paper also provides independent evidence for the decomposed Finnish IP-structure (Mitchell 1991). ItemDividing the world: The dichotomous rhetoric of Ronald Reagan(Multilingua, 1993) Halmari, HelenaThe language of politics often divides our world into two groups: those who share our own values, and those who supposedly oppose them. Ex-President Ronald Reagan was a master of the use of dichotomous language. His dichotomies were most clearly present in his descriptions of the U.S.- Soviet relations and the American and the Soviet military. The military build-up on the American side was exculpated, while the Soviet military build-up was vilified. With the change of the Soviet leadership in 1985, Reagan’s dichotomous thinking was challenged, and towards the end of Reagan’s presidency a slight change in his rhetoric can be noticed: he started to acknowledge a good side to the Soviet Union; however, there was often a tendency to denigrate the observed good. New areas of dichotomies arose, and vilification flourished till the end of his presidency. ItemThe Global Agri-food Sector and the Case of the Tuna Industry: Global Regulation and Perspectives for Development(International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture, 1994) Bananno, Alessandro; Constance, Douglas H.Employing the case of the global tuna fish industry the paper investigates the effect of globalization on political institutions and social agents. Three interrelated points are argued. First, it is maintained that while the process of globalization is pervasive, it is also flexible, i.e. the outcome of globalization are contested and no particular agent has total control. Second, in the domestic arena, the regulatory ability of the nation-state has to be redefined. Third, despite possibilities for some subordinate groups to advance, weak segments of the labor force, particularly in developing countries such as in Latin America, continue to be marginalized. A possible alternative strategy call for attempts to establish international solidarity. The latter, however, should be based on awareness of the limits of protectionist and/or domestic center strategies in the global era. ItemGlobal Post-Fordism and Concepts of the State(International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 1994) Bananno, Alessandro; Friedland, William H.; Llambi, Luis; Marsden, Terry; Moreira, Manuel Belo; Schaeffer, RobertFollowing a review of the literature on the State and some of the basic features of global post-Fordism, it is maintained that global post-Fordism can be synthesized through a set of four dialectical relationships: deregulation/re-regulation, fragmentation/coordination, mobility/embeddedness and empowerment/disempowerment. Moreover, it is argued that: 1) the State in global post-Fordism cannot be thought of exclusively in national terms; 2) its re-conceptualization must entail a transnational dimension; 3) the State cannot be conceptualized exclusively in terms of formal public appearances, agents and agencies; and 4) non-public apparatuses, agents and agencies must be included in the analysis. ItemTransforming Personalized Speech: Bridging the Worlds of Home, School, and Clinic for the Preschooler with Language Delays(Canadian Society for the Study of Education (Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l'éducation), 1995) Stockall, NancyTeachers and speech and language therapists worked with language-delayed and language-disordered preschoolers in a program to remediate communication problems (Haas, 1993). Despite these efforts, the children failed to demonstrate generalization of learned communicative strategies across settings. Only when professionals recognized and accepted the established communicative signs of the child's home were they able to collaborate with the mothers in transforming and creating new communication patterns that met the child's needs in a variety of settings and contexts. /// Dans le cadre d'un programme visant à remédier à des problèmes de communication (Haas, 1993), des enseignants et des orthophonistes ont travaillé avec des enfants d'âge scolaire aux prises avec des troubles du langage et des retards dans le développement du langage. En dépit de ces efforts, les enfants n'ont pas réussi à appliquer, d'une manière générale et dans des contextes différents, les stratégies de communication qu'ils avaient apprises. C'est seulement lorsque les praticiens ont reconnu et accepté les signes de communication établis au sein du foyer de l'enfant qu'ils ont pu collaborer avec les mères pour transformer les modes de communication existants et en créer de nouveaux qui puissent répondre aux besoins de l'enfant dans divers contextes. ItemThe United Nations Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Offenders: An Overview With Specific Reference to the Situation in Developing Countries(1995-03) Souryal, Sam S.Anyone who reads the newspapers or watches the miracle of CNN on television cannot escape noting the atrocities committed against prisoners in so many parts of the world. Just recently, atrocities have been reported by the Serbs against Muslim prisoners in Bosnia-Herzogovina. by the Whites against black prisoners in South Africa, by fascist regimes against political prisoners in Latin America, and by the Israeli authorities against Arab prisoners. The world also recalls with horror the atrocities committed by the Iraqis against Kuwaiti prisoners whose sole crime was attempting to liberate their homeland during the Iraqi occupation of 1990-1991. The mistreatment of prisoners is neither new to the history of man. nor is it limited to developing countries. It is the egotistical constitution of man which favors conquest over tolerance, power over reason, and humiliation over kindness. The mistreatment of prisoners has existed in just about every country, in one form or another, at one time or another in its development. Socrates, Jesus. Maciavelli. Thomas More. Galileo. Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Nelson Mandela, to mention just a few, are "living proof of such acts of inmate oppression. Apostle Paul, perhaps because of his personal prison experience, wrote in the message to the Hebrews: "Remember those in prison as though you are imprisoned with them" (Hebrews 13: 3). ItemThe quality inclusion process: Assuring the quality of inclusive practices for students with disabilities(National School Development Council (Catalyst for Change), 1997) Stockall, Nancy ItemAn Exposition of Police Badge Policy: Ten Reasons in Support of a Single-badge(Texas Police Journal, 1997-12) Souryal, Sam S.Modern police departments allow for a variety of police badges, i.e., one for patrol officers, one for supervisors, one for detectives, etc. While the rationale behind this policy may have been embedded in tradition, its continuance may speak unfavorably to the department's managerial sophistication. In multiple-badge departments, badges vary from a basic stainless steel version which is small, crude, and of limited appeal, to a golden version which is larger and has ornaments attached to it. The reasoning behind this is certainly one that is motivated by a desire to signify rank or function, to stimulate motivation within the force, to make a better impression on the public, or a combination of all of these. Yet, despite the elegance of this reasoning, the policy may have a counter-effect on the overall performance of the department, and, if so, should be rethought. ItemThe Global Economy and Democracy: the Tuna-Dolphin Controversy Revisited(International Journal of the Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 1998) Bananno, Alessandro; Constance, Douglas H. ItemCAFO CONTROVERSY IN THE TEXAS PANHANDLE REGION: THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS OF HOG PRODUCTION(Culture and Agriculture, 1999) Constance, Douglas H.; Bonanno, AlessandroIn this analysis we use the case of the expansion of mega hog operations in the Panhandle area of Texas to illustrate the strategies corporate actors employ to counter environmental concerns expressed by activist groups. To facilitate the growth of hogs CAFOs (confined animal feeding operations), corporate actors exert their influence over state environmental agencies and eliminate public participation from quality of the environment evaluation procedures. In response, activist groups use the courts to challenge the corporate strategies on the grounds that hog CAFOs compromise the physical and social environment of their communities. Pro-business interests respond through narrowing the definition of environmentally sound agricultural activities by stressing their conformity to existing environmental regulations and highlighting the economic benefits related to job expansion and monetary donations to cooperating communities. We conclude that the concept of the environment is a contested terrain made up of competing socially created discourses which need substantive rather than formal evaluations. ItemThe crisis of representation: the limits of liberal democracy in the global era(Journal of Rural Studies, 2000) Bananno, AlessandroIn liberal thought, democracy is guaranteed by the unity of community and government. The community of citizens elects its government according to political preferences. The government rules over the community with powers which are limited by unalienable human, civil, and political rights. These assumptions have characterized Classical Liberalism, Revisionist Liberalism and contemporary Neo-liberal theories. However, the assumed unity of community and government becomes problematic in Global Post-Fordism. Recent research on the globalization of the economy and society has underscored the increasing inability of nation-states to exercise power over their communities which, in turn, limits the ability of communities to express their will at the nation-state level. The current phase of capitalism is characterized by socio-economic relations which transcend the jurisdictions of nation-states and local spaces. This paper addresses the issue of the fracture of the unity of community and government by introducing feature characteristics of Classical Liberalism, Revisionist Liberalism and Neo-liberalism. Moreover, it analyzes the contribution of the theory of Re#exive Modernization which represents a novel attempt to rethink democracy within the liberal tradition. The paper concludes that the inability of governments to control economic and non-economic environments creates a crisis of representation which implies serious limits to liberal democracy. This situation is particularly important for rural regions as their socio-economic development, and programs for its democratization have been historically based on the intervention of agencies of and control by the nation-state. c 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.