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ItemA City Divided: Debates over Slavery in Antebellum Pittsburgh(2019-09-25) Wells, Cody A.; Cox, ThomasAlthough much attention has been paid to the influence of southern slavery on the secession crisis and subsequent Civil War, far less has been spent analyzing the complexities of how northern communities in the antebellum period addressed questions over the peculiar institution. Northerners were not simply opposed, or perhaps ambivalent, to slavery during this period. Rather, individuals and groups had various responses when confronted with the institution. This study attempts to shed new light on the various reactions to slavery from one antebellum city: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Antebellum Pittsburgh provides an excellent case study for examining diverse northern reactions to slavery, as well as how those reactions developed and changed over time. The presence of various groups, each with their own unique responses when presented with questions over slavery, allows the city to act as a microcosm for the diverse antebellum North. Pittsburgh was home to many prominent white abolitionists and a free black community, both of which contributed significantly to the western operations of the state’s Underground Railroad. Additionally, the city’s geographical location, on the forks of the Ohio River, promoted southern trade. This left many businessmen and entrepreneurs in the growing industrial city sympathetic to the struggles of southern slaveholders. Each of these groups provides a unique component to a larger, more complex, story of slavery in early America. A large quantity of primary and secondary sources demonstrates the diverse reactions to slavery in antebellum Pittsburgh, yet each fails to fit these perspectives into a larger context. To date, no major work seeks to examine these diverse voices in the Pittsburgh area nor analyzes the complex societies within which they collectively existed. This research project is an attempt to do just that. By analyzing the writings of prominent individuals in Pittsburgh, as well as speeches, newspapers, and court cases, a more coherent understanding of the community and their reactions to slavery are outlined. Although this thesis examines slavery debates in only one community, the complexities of reactions and the existence of various groups can, in some ways, reflect the northern half of the antebellum American nation. ItemA comparative study of the contributions made to physical fitness by the addition of planned isometric or isotonic exercise at the beginning of each class period of a regular program of physical education activity of forty-two women students during the fall semester of the 1964-1965 academic year at Sam Houston State Teachers College in Huntsville, Texas(1965) Rummel, Rose Mary,1940-; Cady, Ruth MThe primary purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of planned isometric or isotonic exercises at the beginning of each class period to physical fitness. A secondary purpose was to determine whether physical fitness was retained after cessation of the planned isometric or isotonic program and to what degree. The specific purposes of the study were as follows. 1.) Determine the degree of competency in each of the seven areas of physical fitness as measured by the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test, 35 of 42 students enrolled in two Archery/ Track and field classes prior to participation in a planned isometric or isotonic exercise regime at the beginning of each class period. 2.) Determine the degree of competency in the seven areas of physical fitness as measured by the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test, of the forty-two subjects after six weeks of planned isometric or isotonic exercised at the beginning of each class period. 3.) Determine the degree of competency in the seven areas of physical fitness as measured by the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test, of the forty-two subjects six weeks after discontinuation of the planned exercise program. 4.) Determine the number of units of elementary through secondary school physical education. ItemA comparative study of the differences existent between the academic ability, motor ability, and personality adjustment of physical education majors and non-majors at Sam Houston State Teachers College, Huntsville, Texas(1964) Williams, Hilda Lee,1940-; Montague, Mary EllaPurpose: it was the purpose of this study to determine the quality of the students who have chosen to major in physical education by comparing physical education majors with students who were majoring in other academic areas. Attention was directed to three major areas: (1) academic ability as determined by scores on the American College Test; (2) motor ability as evidenced by scores on the Scott Motor Ability Tests; and (3) personality adjustment as indicated by scores on the California Psychological Inventory. Methods: The methods used to obtain data for this study were (1) examination of literature in the areas of academic ability, motor ability and personality adjustment, (2) establishment of criteria for the selection of tests of academic ability, motor ability and personality adjustment, (3) selection of standardize tests on basis of established criteria, (4) determination of population for the study through evaluation of similar studies, (5) administration of the standardized tests of motor ability and personality adjustment, (6) requesting permission to use the ACT raw scores of the population from the guidance office at Sam Houston State Teachers College. The data was then processed to determine the relationships existent between the academic ability, motor ability, and personality adjustment of women freshman and sophomore physical education majors and non-majors. Finding: From the evidence presented in this study the following suggestions appear to be in order: 1. Physical education majors seem to be slightly below non-majors in capacity for status, social presence, self-acceptance, responsibility, self-control, tolerance, and achievement via conformance, and markedly below non-majors in femininity. 2. Physical education majors seem to be slightly higher than non-majors in dominance, achievement via independence, psychological mindedness, and flexibility. 3. Physical education majors and non-majors seem to be the same in sociability, sense of well-being, socialization, good impression, communality and intellectual efficiency. 4. In general, the personality adjustment of non-majors appears to be higher than that of physical education majors as determined by the CPI. 5. Data on the ACT seems to indicate that the physical education majors are markedly below the non-majors in English, slightly below the majors in mathematics, social studies and on a composite score, and the same as non-majors in the natural sciences. 6. Data revealed by the SMA would make it appear that physical education majors are markedly above the non-majors in ability to run an obstacle race, slightly above the non-majors in performance of the standing broad jump and basketball throw distance, and somewhat higher than non-majors on a composite score of motor ability. ItemA comparative study of the nature of guilt and responsibility in the works of O. Hobart Mowrer and William Glasser with classical Freudian theory(1967) Wheaton, David K.,1938-; Killenger, GeorgePurpose: The purpose of this project was to examine the works of O. Hobart Mowrer and William Glasser and to compare their understanding of the nature of guilt and responsibility with classical Freudian theory. It was the purpose of the project to demonstrate that Freud presupposed something about the nature of man with which neither Mowrer nor Glasser agree. The research shows that nature of man is such that Freud could not deal adequately with the descriptive categories called guilt and responsibility because these are ontological categories and not scientific psychological measurable entities. The research further shows that Mowrer and Glasser presuppose that guilt and responsibility are ontological in character. Methods of Research: The procedure and method od investigation was to examine the original writings of the psychotherapists being studied. Secondary sources pertinent to the area of study were also examined. Personal interviews and taped lectures of the psychotherapists furthered the research. An investigation of pertinent pamphlets and experiments written for class and public lecture widened the investigation. This project developed along these lines: (1) examining the nature of man according to Freud (2) examining the nature of man according to Glasser and Mowrer (3) examining the nature of guilt according to Freud (4) examining the nature of guilt according to Glasser and Mowrer (5) examining the nature of responsibility according to Freud (6) examining the nature of responsibility according to Glasser and Mowrer. Findings: 1. Freud presupposed that the nature of man was homo natura and that the body is given unconditional authority in determining man’s essential being. 2. Mowrer and Glasser disagree with Freud and presuppose that the nature of man is homo sapien. Man is a bio-socio organism who can formulate interpersonal relationships and bring meaning to those relationships, and formulate moral values and systems. 3. Freud could not deal adequately with the descriptive categories “guilt” and “responsibility” because man is more than a biological machine. 4. Guilt and responsibility are ontological categories and not scientific psychological measurable entities. Guilt and responsibility are given in society and are apart of being as such. Thus they are ontological and not scientifically measurable. 5. Freud pre-supposed that guilt and responsibility were feelings caused by external conditioning. These feelings were conditioned by a powerful force he called the superego. These feelings are caused by a thwarting of the biological drives which are characterized by sex and aggression. 6. Mowrer and Glasser pre-suppose that guilt and responsibility are real. They are an external (societal) phenomenon and not just an internal (guilt feeling) phenomenon. Man is responsible for his decisions and his behavior. Responsibility and guilt are learned phenomena and reside not in the feelings of the organism, but in the reality structures of society. Thus for Mowrer and Glasser guilt and responsibility are ontological in nature—it is given in existence—and not adapted to by biological determinants. ItemA comparison of a self evaluation and an evaluation by an employer of the inmate as an employee(1972) Murray, Frederick M.,1940-; Friel, Charles MPurpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the significant difference in responses to an employee evaluation by inmate and their respective employers. The inmates completed a self evaluation on employee performance, and the employers completed a similar evaluation on the inmateâ€™s work performance. It was the aim of this study to achieve a clearer understanding of the attitude held by inmates and their past employers toward the inmateâ€™s work performance. The difference between the two evaluations would suggest a need for vocational counseling in addition to the vocational training in the various prison systems. Methods: The methods used to obtain data for this study were as follows: (1) a forty item questionnaire on job performance was develop; (2) the questionnaire was submitted to the inmate and employer sample groups; and (3) the significant difference between inmate and employer were computed by using the t test method. Findings: The findings of this investigation indicate a significant difference between the inmate and employer ratings. The data revealed that inmates tend to view themselves as better employees than do their employers. The inmates rated themselves more positive on nine out of ten variables than the employers. The employers were more positive than the inmates on ten percent of the variables. The inmates rated themselves a high positive on twenty percent of the variables. The largest single item difference between the two groups concerned doing a job not asked while at work. The inmates felt very positive about their willingness to do the job not asked, while the employer felt more negative. The other item in this high disagreement concerned the employeeâ€™s performance on the job. For example, doing oneâ€™s best on the job, doing oneâ€™s share of work, accepting responsibility, helping others on the job and calling if late for work. The largest differences between the two groups on these variables suggest this area needs to be examined by vocational counselors. The inmates were more positive than the employers on sixty-five percent of the variables. These items dealt with attitudes towards work, work suggestions and the company. For example, the inmate group felt their general physical appearance on the job was good to excellent but the employer felt it was good. Vocational counseling would make the inmate employee aware of these job attitude differences. This type of counseling could help the problem of employing ex-inmates. The two study groups were in close agreement on 7.5 percent of the variables. These three variables ere taking criticism, correcting a fellow worker, and having an open relationship with the supervisor. If both groups can agree in a positive manner on the ability to take criticism and open relationship then there is room for discussion of the problem. They agreed they had the open relationship between employer and employee and the employee felt he could take the criticism. The next step in this logical sequence would be that some employment problems between employers and ex-inmates would be a lack of communication. The study indicated both groups felt to a degree they could communicate, but apparently had not had good communications. The employers, in reversal of the study trend, rated four items more positive than the inmates. The items were: participation in group activities, gossip at work, ability to take criticism and relation to supervisor other then work. Perhaps the inmate rated himself too negative on these items. These items would be of interest in vocational counseling because they represent a reversal of the study trend. These large significant differences between inmate and employer rating on more of the variables, strongly suggest that the inmate needs vocational counseling as well as vocational training. There would be no point in sending a trained welder out to work if he could not hold a job because of his job attitude. The overall findings of the data revealed that the inmate tends to think of himself as a good, if not excellent employee. The employers indicated a more negative viewpoint of inmates as employees. This unrealistic self image of the inmate as an employee is probably a significant factor in his job failure rate. The data suggest that any vocational training without vocational counseling will be of little effect in rehabilitation. The significant difference between inmate and employer ratings indicated a constant discrepancy in the self image ratings. If there was an effective vocational counseling program in conjunction with present vocational training programs, there would be a lower recidivism rate and a higher job success rate for ex-inmates. ItemA comparison of factors affecting the small-scale distribution of mercury contamination in a Zimbabwean stream system(2017-04-18) Green, Corey S.; Thies, Monte L.; Lewis, Patrick J.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) operations use mercury liberally in the gold extraction process, as compared to large scale industrial mining operations, and accounts for approximately one third of anthropogenic mercury consumption worldwide. These ASM operations are concentrated in many impoverished and poorly regulated countries such as Zimbabwe, resulting in a number of negative environmental and health impacts. There are three pathways by which mercury generally enters the environment from gold mining: 1) directly via private miners, 2) through stamp mill operations (also used by ASM miners), and 3) industrial-scale mining operations. To examine the levels of mercury contamination resulting in one such geographic locality, sediment and tailing samples in a single, heavily mined watershed in southern Zimbabwe were collected from May – June 2015. Samples were collected from the stream system, as well as six stamp mills and a single industrial mine in the watershed. GPS point location data were taken for mining operations and sampling sites to examine the spatial patterns of mercury concentration relative to each mining operation. Data were first analyzed using linear regression then a MARS model, followed by application of an ANCOVA model to assess the relationship between mercury concentrations and three factors; percent organic carbon, distance downstream, and distance from potential contamination source. Mercury concentrations within the study area ranged between 6-1,541 µg/kg dw (mean 142 µg/kg dw). Analyses of mercury concentrations indicated a positive relationship with percent organic carbon and a negative relationship with distance downstream and distance from potential contamination source. Results from this study will help to elucidate the relationship between gold production and the spatial scale of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems in Africa. These data may lead to a better understanding of the relationship between mercury use and community health, which may aid both the local and global communities in regulating mercury contamination of the environment, thereby reducing the suffering and early death of many people in impoverished countries where ASM is commonplace. ItemA comparison of the academic grades of athletes with the academic grades of the student body at Sam Houston State Teachers College(1953) Proctor, Robert L.; Kirk, Joe ENo Abstract ItemA comparison of the value patterns of early Hebrews and early Greeks(1968) Law, Barbara C.,1936-; Bellar, LeonardPurpose: It was the purpose of this study to explore the differences and similarities in the value patterns of the early Greeks and the early Hebrews. Five topics concerning the value patterns of these cultures were considered: (1) the view of life; (2) the view of death and the after-life; (3) the relationships between gods and men; (4) the characteristics of heroes; and (5) the status of women. Methods: The methods used to obtain data for this study were (1) close textual analysis of primary source material; and (2) comparison of conclusions with those of secondary sources. Findings: From the evidence presented in this study the following conclusions appear to be in order: 1. The value patterns revealed in the Homeric epics are, of course, more consistent than those of the early books of The Old Testament because the latter reflect various cultural levels and practices over a longer period of time. 2. Although many similarities existed between early Greek culture as revealed by Homer in his epics, and Hebrew culture as revealed in The Old Testament, these similarities generally were those which unite all cultures. Certain basic differences in philosophical outlook were found which sharply divided the early Greek mind from that of the Hebrew. 3. The early Greek culture contained the seed of humanism which also characterized Golden Age Athenian culture, and which has been the social and political motivating force in European civilization since the onset of the Renaissance. Hebrew culture and concepts, on the other hand, furnished the impetus toward the metaphysical and toward ethical monotheism which has guided European civilization as strongly as has Greek humanism. ItemA COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF DISSERTATIONS FROM 2010 TO 2019 INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES AND PREPARATION FOR PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS IN USING MULTICULTURAL AND INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN’S AND YOUNG ADULT’S LITERATURE: A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW(2020-11-24) Rice Shearer, Ragina Dian; Votteler, Nancy KThe goal of this comprehensive literature review is to show the importance of using multicultural and international children’s and young adult literature as a needed resource within classrooms across grade levels in order to develop and maintain societies of people around the globe who are knowledgeable of, empathetic toward, and accepting and understanding of one another. A second goal is to show students who work collaboratively using multiple sign systems express their understandings of literature, have encouraged critical thinking skills and are enabled to develop their cultural strengths and talents. This study researched and analyzed the reported importance of the use of multicultural and international children’s and young adults’ literature and promoted awareness of the need for pre-service teachers to be prepared to use this literature in their future classrooms. Numerous dissertations with the topic of cultural literature were rigorously studied and selected or deselected according to questions pre-chosen by the researcher. The fieldnotes taken from two prominent International Literature conferences were meticulously examined as well, for the input of the need for forth coming teachers to be prepared in using this literature in their classrooms. The findings and conclusions found it to be necessary for pre-service teachers to be prepared on using cultural literature in the most efficient ways according to a conglomeration of award winning authors, illustrators, and prestigious professors who specialize in the area of multicultural and international children’s and young adult’s literature. Implications prevail heavily that detailed preparation for pre-service teachers in the implementation of the use of this literature is imperative. ItemA Content Analysis of Gender Representations in Independent Video Games(2017-04-10) Nicholl, Grace; Miller, Lee; Cabaniss, Emily; Douglas, KarenVideo games are an increasingly popular pastime, and their influence on society grows along with the gaming industry. Independent video games are also growing in popularity, though little research has been conducted on how indie games compare to mainstream Triple-A (AAA) games, particularly in in representations of gender. This content analysis investigates the representations of gender found in indie video games. Twelve popular indie games from 2010 through 2015 were selected for investigation. Characters appearing in these games were evaluated on a number of variables to determine adherence to gender norms exposed in previous research. Male characters were found to outnumber female characters, though by a smaller margin than expected. Female characters were sexualized in higher numbers than males, though less than found in AAA games. A significant number of characters were found to be gender non-conforming. ItemA course of study in physical education for high school girls of Sweeny(1943-08-01) Eyhusen, Patricia Regina; Smith, S. ENo Abstract ItemA critical analysis of the collection and public reporting of data on drinking drivers(1977) Callaway, Noel Dee,1915-; Barrum, James APurpose: The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, to present a report published by a policing agency and some possible conclusions that could be drawn from this report. Second, and more important, to demonstrate why descriptive statistics alone present a major problem in an endeavor to answer the question of how alcohol is involved in traffic crashes. Most importantly, it will show the need for some different types of analysis of the data collected in order to more accurately and dramatically illustrate the full impact of the drinking and driving problem. Methodology: The methodology used in this study was to present a set of statistical data gathered by a law enforcement agency and their report, using this data, that purported to depict some of the drinking-driver problems. The statistical data was then presented in a different form and critically analyzed to point out conclusions and misconceptions that could be reached due to the incompleteness of the data. Findings: 1. For each of the eight variables considered with the blood alcohol level of drinking drivers, a very large majority had a BAL equal to or greater than he presumptive level of intoxication. 2. Males were greatly over-represented in the drinking drivers suspected of DWI and administered a blood-alcohol test. 3. Most of the drinking drivers suspected of DWI and administered a blood-alcohol test were, what is thought by many to be, middle-aged (ages 25-54). 4. A small number of drivers involved in traffic crashes were given a BAL test. 5. The evening hours from 9:00 P.M. until 2:59 A.M. had over one-half the BAL test administered. 6. Over one-half the BAL tests were administered on Saturday and Sunday. Recommendations: 1. Legislation be enacted to support, permit, and/or require research to be made to determine extent and the degree of alcohol involvement in traffic crashes. 2. Mandatory participation in treatment programs by alcoholics who rink and drive. 3. Improve the adjudication process and the corrections process to place emphasis on the concept that drunk driving is not approved behavior. 4. Minor changes be made in the data collection procedure in order to gather additional pertinent data on drinking drivers. 5. Fuller use be made of available information to initiate programs to combat the drinking-driver problem. 6. Academics, medical personnel, police and other persons, with expertise to contribute, work together to design programs to study the extent and degree of the drinking-driver problem. 7. Countermeasure programs be constructed from the findings and proposed solutions set out in the preceding recommendation. ItemA Critical Review Of Post-Secondary Education Writing During A 21st Century Education Revolution(2020-12-01T06:00:00.000Z) Muse, Bridgett; Votteler, NancyEducational materials are effective instruments which provide information and report new discoveries uncovered by researchers in specific areas of academia. Higher education, like other education institutions, rely on instructional materials to inform its practice of educating adult learners. In post-secondary education, developmental English programs are tasked with meeting the needs of dynamic populations, thus there is a continuous need for research in this area to support its changing landscape. However, the majority of scholarly thought in this area centers on K-12 reading and writing. This paucity presents a phenomenon to the post-secondary community. This research study uses a qualitative content analysis to examine peer-reviewed journals from 2003-2017, developmental online websites, and a government issued document directed toward reforming post-secondary developmental education programs. These highly relevant sources aid educators in discovering informational support to apply best practices for student success. Developmental education serves the purpose of addressing literacy gaps for students transitioning to college-level work. The findings here illuminate the dearth of material offered to developmental educators. This study suggests the field of literacy research is fragmented and highlights an apparent blind spot in scholarly literature with regard to English writing instruction. This poses a quandary for post-secondary literacy researchers in the 21st century and establishes the necessity for the literacy research community to commit future scholarship toward equipping college educators teaching writing instruction to underprepared adult learners. ItemA DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF DISCIPLINARY CONSEQUENCE ASSIGNMENTS AND THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF TEXAS GRADE 3 THROUGH 8 STUDENTS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION OVER TIME: A STATEWIDE ANALYSISBenson, Jamie Heintz; Slate, Dr. John R.Purpose The purpose of this journal-ready dissertation was to examine the relationship of exclusionary discipline consequences assigned to Texas Grade 3 through 8 students enrolled in special education and their academic achievement during the 2012-2013 through the 2015-2016 school year. In addition, the relationship of exclusionary discipline assignments on the reading and mathematics achievement of students enrolled in special education over a 4-year period was examined. In the first investigation, the numbers and percentages of Texas Grade 3 through 8 students enrolled in special education who received a discipline consequence was examined. In the second study, the relationship of Disciplinary Alternative Education Program placement with the reading achievement of students enrolled in special education was investigated over a 4-year time period. Finally, in the third investigation, the relationship of Disciplinary Alternative Education Program placement with the mathematics achievement of students enrolled in special education was investigated over a 4-year time period Method In this investigation, a descriptive approach (Creswell, 2009) was used in which four years of Texas statewide data across six grade levels were analyzed. Archival data regarding Grade 3 through Grade 8 students who were enrolled in special education were analyzed here. Findings Results were fairly consistent across all four school years, across all six grade levels, and across all three articles in this journal-ready dissertation. For each exclusionary discipline assignment investigated, the percentage of students who were in special education and received exclusionary discipline assignments decreased across over the four years investigated, where the number of assignments received by students increased. Students who were in special education and received between 1-30 days in a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program placement had better STAAR Reading and Mathematics performance than students who received between 31-60 days and more than 60 days in a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program placement. Results discussed herein were consistent with the existing literature regarding the frequency and duration of disciplinary assignments received by students in special education and the influence of exclusionary discipline assignments on reading and mathematics performance. ItemA descriptive study of aircraft hijacking(1972) Turi, Robert T.,1943-; Friel, Charles; Robert B. Sheldon; John Matthews.Aerial hijacking is a relatively new peril for the American airline industry and the millions of passengers who depart each year from American airports. Only a little over a decade has passed since the first â€œskyjackingâ€� of an American airplane on May 1, 1961. Yet, the snowballing effect of this initial incident has been swift and dramatic, as one airplane after another is diverted to an unscheduled destination. In 1961 there was a total of five skyjackings of United States registered aircraft, which were followed by only one in 1962 and none in 1963. In 1968 activity increased with 22 aircraft being seized followed by 40 in 1969, this is the largest yearly total to date. In 1970 and 1971 there were 27 per year. So far this year, as of 1 March, 1972, we have had 6 skyjackings. This gives us a total of 134 skyjackings since 1961. The purpose of this paper was to prepare a descriptive study of all aspects of the phenomenon of skyjacking. This study includes the latest statistics on skyjacking, i.e., number of skyjackings, type of weapons, type of aircrafts, skyjackersâ€™ identification and disposition or status. This paper also discusses the legal aspects, both national and international, related to this crime. The personality and emotional nature of the skyjacker is also examined. In addition, the preventive measures instituted by the government and the airline industry are discussed. Included in this discussion are the sky marshal program, the pre-board screening process and the use of electronic detection equipment. A review of the literature was the major procedure used to gather background information, especially concerning the legal aspects of this problem. The current statistics were obtained both through written correspondence and personal interviews with Federal Aviation Authority officials. Aviation journals such as Aviation Week and Space Technology were reviewed in an attempt to ascertain the technical problems that akyjacking presents for the airlines. Court proceedings were examined to determine the legality of airport searches. Government documents, Department of State Bulletins and reports to Congress concerning skyjacking were reviewed and analyzed. ItemA descriptive study of fraudulent checks :an investigative model(1976) Schroeder, Larry D.,1946-; Dowling, Jerry L; Jerry L. Dowling; Billy W. Bramlett; John P. MatthewsPurpose: The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate the respective roles of merchants, banking institutions, and law enforcement agencies in relation to fraudulent check crime; (2) to determine why the consumer is not made aware of the extent and cost of fraudulent check crime; (3) to evaluate the investigative procedures and capabilities of law enforcement agencies assigned the responsibility of investigating fraudulent check crime; (4) to determine if the criminal justice system is organized to respond to this type of crime effectively; and (5) to develop model procedures for the investigation of fraudulent check offenses. Methods: The major procedures used to gather information in this study were: (1) a field survey was conducted in the metropolitan Houston area with large chain stores, banking facilities, collection agencies and elements of the criminal justice system at city, county and federal levels; (2) letters, requesting bibliographic and departmental information concerning investigative procedures for fraudulent checks, were sent to the fifty largest police departments based on the population served; (3) an assessment of the information obtained was performed in relation to the individual operations, inter-relationships, weaknesses and strengths of these various organizations; (5) an extensive review of the pertinent literature was conducted, including : (a) the historical development of the check; (b) the banking system established to process check transactions; (c) a review of the Uniform Commercial Code; (d) a review of written studies on check offenders; â‚¬ a review of the economic impact of fraudulent check offenses; and (f) a review of those sections of the Texas Penal Code pertaining to fraudulent check crime. Fraudulent checks are divided into two categories: (a) non-sufficient fund checks and (b) forged or altered checks. Findings: 1. Statistics pertaining to the dollar loss caused by fraudulent checks are controversial and virtually impossible to verify at this time. 2. The fraudulent check offender is a highly mobile individual who migrates within regions and is extremely recidivistic. The few studies of the check offender that exist are very old and need to be replicated to add validity to the findings. 3. In one circumstance, considerable effort has been made, over a period of years, to establish a Uniform Commercial Code. In the area of penal law every state has established its own criminal statutes coupled with differing prosecution policy. 4. The business community seeks restitution and not prosecution in all but a few instances. Interviews conducted substantiate that forgery offenses are often not reported to the police. 5. The sections of the Texas Penal Code pertaining to fraudulent checks has turned the Harris County District Attorneyâ€™s Office and the Justices of the Peace into tax supported collection agencies. 6. The criminal justice system is currently not adequately organized or prepared to cope with the fraudulent check problem. 7. The business community will not initiate adequate check cashing policies for its protection if the financial loss incurred is collected by government agencies through restitution procedures. Competition between merchants is too keen to install check-cashing policies upon customers unless the public is informed of the fraudulent check problem. The merchants are content to blame the bankers and the bankers to blame the merchants concerning this problem. The business community believes public exposure of the problem will cause a credibility drop with the consumer. 8. Offender identification is compounded by the ease with which fraudulent identification may be obtained. There is a need for federal and state governments to cross-index birth and death certificates. 9. The contention that a drivers license is not issued for the purpose of identification, but only indicates the privilege to drive an automobile, is seemingly unrealistic and out of date. 10. The federal law enforcement agencies appear to be much more sophisticated in the investigative procedures followed in identifying forgery offenders. There is a need for federal investigative agencies to provide a centralized training program to equip municipal law enforcement with the expertise developed in forgery investigations. 11. The numerous city and county jurisdictions involving local law enforcement are restrictive to thorough investigation of fraudulent check offenses. This problem is increased when there is no means to adequately pool investigative knowledge. Municipal law enforcement lacks written policies and procedures for the investigation of fraudulent check offenders. This is not only true in Harris County but may be found nationwide. 12. The key elements suggested for establishing effective fraudulent check investigation are as follows: (a) exposure of the fraudulent check problem to the consumer; (b) revision of state penal codes; (c) establishing an adequate form of identification; (d) creation of a check file system, manual and/or computerized; (e) a regional alert notification system; and (f) written procedures and policy pertaining to forgery investigation. ItemA descriptive study of the mail bomb offender arrested in the United States from January 1, 1974 to December 31, 1975(1976) Sturdevant, Larry J.,1937-; Matthews, John PPurpose: The objectives of this study were: (1) to attempt to discover identifying characteristics common to the mail bomb offender; (2) to attempt to identify any similarity in the methodology utilized by the offenders; (3) to provide base line data for future research which can be used in the development of prediction models for dealing with mail bomb offenders; and (4) to provide future investigators an insight into the situations which have previously existed that resulted in a mail bomb offense. Methods: The data for this study were obtained from the official records and reports of the United States Postal Inspection Service. Only those cases which resulted in an arrest were included in the study. A total of eighteen cases were included which resulted in the arrest of twenty-six offenders. Data relating to the offender and data relating to the methodology utilized by the offender were compiled as follows: Data Relating to the Offender 1. Age 2. Race 3. Sex 4. Occupational background 5. Educational background 6. Primary motive 7. Motive by age 8. Prior Arrest History by motive 9. Intended victim by motive 10. Height and weight characteristics of male offenders Data Relating to the Methodology of the Offender 1. Month device was mailed 2. Day of week mailed 3. Mailing location in relation to residence of offender and addressee 4. Days elapsed from date of offense to date of arrest 5. Explosive composition of device 6. Number of devices resulting in detonation and injury Findings: Some of the more significant findings from the data studied are as follows: Age â€“ The data suggests that this crime is primarily an act characteristic of younger individuals as the median age is 24 years and the age group of 15 to 29 years represented 69.2 per cent of all arrestees. Race â€“ The crime appears to be characteristic of the Caucasian race as all of the twenty-six arrestees represented in the study were Caucasians. Sex â€“ The crime is primarily a male act, as twenty-two of the twenty-six offenders arrested, or 84.6 per cent were male. Prior Arrest History: The data indicates that the mail bomb offender tends not to have been previously involved in law violation, as only eight, or 31 per cent of the arrestees had previously been arrested. Motive: Three primary motives were identified in the cases in this study: sex, avarice, and revenge. The most likely motive in a mail bomb case is one of sexual interest, which was the primary motive in nine of eighteen cases studied, or 50 per cent of them. Motive of Offender by Age â€“ The data indicate that the older offenders are more likely to be motivated by revenge than any other reason, as five of the six offenders who were over forty years of age were motivated by revenge. No other age categories appear to be highly correlated with motive. Mailing Location in Relation to Residence of Offender and Addressee â€“ The offenders tend to mail from locations in cities other than those in which they or the addressee reside. Only four of the eighteen mailings (22%), were mailed in the city to which they were addressed. Twelve of the mailings, (67%) were made outside the city in which the offender lived. ItemA descriptive study of the Texas Ranger :historical overtones on minority attutides(1971) Rigler, Erik T.,1943-; Killinger, George G.Purpose: The Purpose of this study was to establish an understanding of the relationship between the Texas Ranger and the Mexican American and to provide a profile of todayâ€™s Texas Ranger. Included is a recounting of the Texas Rangerâ€™s 150-yeaar old history, a brief history of the Mexican Americans of South Texas, and measurements of opinions from Mexican American and Anglo American communities. Specifically, the aim of the study was to provide for those interested an account of some of the issues concerning the Texas Ranger. Methods: One primary source of Dara for this study was responses to mailed questionnaires containing twenty items for the Texas Rangerâ€™s interest. Also serving as primary data were the knowledge items opinions of five hundred Anglo and Mexican Americans tested in English and Spanish. Secondary sources were numerous books, articles, periodicals, reports, agency statistics, and reports. Findings: From the data and other evidence gathered during the research the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. The Texas Ranger found his official beginning in 1835 as defense for the frontier against the Indians. Since that time the Texas Ranger has been involved in repeated violence with the Mexican or Mexican American. Originally, it involved Mexican bandits raiding in Texas but more lately involved farm labor unionâ€™s attempts at organization. 3. The Mexican American ancestors may have settled in Texas as r=early as 1500. They lost the land to the American settlers after the Texas Revolution, although not all Mexicans concede to this until after the war with the United States. Subsequent to this, thousands have migrate to the U.S. to join those already here. Together they comprise the countryâ€™s largest minority. Together they suffer high unemployment, low education, and inadequate housing. There is considerable political and economic effort afoot to remedy this situation. 3. The â€œaverageâ€� or â€œtypicalâ€� Texas Ranger is 45.5 years old, was 36.8 years old at appointment. He is tall, comes from a rural background, and had 11.9 percent yearsâ€™ experience in the military service. He has expressed a desire for further education and training, predominately in the area of criminology and police science, in service training, psychology, and sociology. 4. In the groups tested Mexican Americana indicated to a higher degree then Anglo Americans that they held the Texas Ranger in less esteem. Areas tested included service, favoritism, and abolishment. 5. Discussion was provided in the areas of history and violence, public image, and abolishment. ItemA descriptive study of twenty-five female homosexualsBrowne, Carol Hardy,1941-; Young, Jeanne PPurpose: The research was devised to investigate some of the social factors present in the life situations of female homosexuals in Houston, Texas. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of this population of lesbians and to specifically consider the factors which have caused female homosexuality as seen by members of the study sample and to relate them to existing literature in this field. In addition to collecting demographic data on the sample, the study was designed to gather information concerning the subjectsâ€™ heterosexual and homosexual development, experiences, and attitudes with emphasis on opinions as to the contributing and casual factors of female homosexual behavior pattern in this population. Methods: The primary sources of data for this study were the interviews conducted with twenty-five female homosexuals in Houston, Texas. The interviews were structured by a fifty-nine item questionnaire. All interviews were conducted by the researcher, therefore minimizing bias. The data were tabulated and distributed by fifty-nine descriptive items. Findings: Although findings cannot be generalized beyond this sample, the data gathered during this research and the findings of this study seem to support the following conclusions: 1. This study suggests that the mother was the dominant figure in the family structure of the female homosexual in this sample. 2. It is concluded from study data that sexual fantasies of a homosexual nature and awareness of homosexual feelings precede actual physical experience. 3. The homosexuals in the sample do not attribute homosexuality to congenital factors 4. The female homosexuals in the sample do not attribute homosexual behavior to the early factor of a sexual trauma with a man. 5. This study supports inference by the literature that the female homosexuals in the study attribute psychic trauma, homosexual seduction, sexual frustrations, and family relationships as contributing factors to female homosexual behavior. ItemA follow-up of commercial graduates of the Hunstville high school(1939-08-01) Rittenhouse, Pearl Pond; Smith, S. ENo Abstract.