Department of Kinesiology

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    Motivational Profiles of Sport Fans of Different Sports
    (Fitness Information Technology (Sport Marketing Quarterly), 2008) Wann, Daniel L.; Grieve, Frederick G.; Zapalac, Ryan; Pease, Dale G.
    The current investigation examined sport type differences in eight fan motives: escape, economic (i.e., gambling), eustress (i.e., positive arousal), self-esteem, group affiliation, entertainment, family, and aesthetics. Participants (final sample N = 886) completed a questionnaire packet assessing their level of fandom and motivation for consuming one of 13 target sports: professional baseball, college football, professional football, figure skating, gymnastics, professional hockey, boxing, auto racing, tennis, professional basketball, college basketball, professional wrestling, and golf. Sports were classified into three different dichotomies: individual (e.g., figure skating, golf) versus team (e.g., professional baseball, college basketball); aggressive (e.g., professional wrestling, professional football) versus nonaggressive (e.g., professional baseball, figure skating); and stylistic (e.g., figure skating, gymnastics) versus nonstylistic (e.g., professional hockey, tennis). In addition to differences in target sports (e.g., golf versus professional football), statistical analyses indicated a number of sport type differences. Aesthetic motivation was found to be particularly prominent in individual sports, while scores were greater for team sports in eustress, self-esteem, group affiliation, entertainment, and family. Aesthetic motivation scores were also high in nonaggressive sports, while economic, eustress, group affiliation, and entertainment were higher for team sports. Finally, aesthetic motivation was quite high for stylistic sports, while economic, eustress, self-esteem, group affiliation, entertainment, and family motivation scores were higher for nonstylistic sports. Only one motive, escape, was not found to differ in at least one sport type comparison. The discussion centers on potential explanations for the sport type differences as well as on marketing implications and suggestions for future research.
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    Collaboration patterns as a function of article genre among mixed researchers: a mixed methods bibliometric study.
    (Macrothink (Journal of Educational Issues), 2017) Jordan, John; Wachsmann, Melanie; Hoisington, Susan; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Valle, Rachel; Lambert, Jarod; Aleisa, Majed; Wilcox, Rachael; Benge, Cindy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
    Surprisingly, scant information exists regarding the collaboration patterns of mixed methods researchers. Thus, the purpose of this mixed methods bibliometric study was to examine (a) the distribution of the number of co-authors in articles published in the flagship mixed methods research journal (i.e., "Journal of Mixed Methods Research" ["JMMR"]) as a function of article genre (Quantitative Phase); (b) the relationship between the genre of articles published in "JMMR" and degree of collaboration in these articles (Quantitative Phase); (c) the difference between the number of authors in empirical research articles and non-empirical research articles published in "JMMR" (Quantitative Phase); and (d) select leading mixed methods researchers' collaboration experiences as a function of genre of article (Qualitative Phase). An analysis of all articles published in "JMMR" from 2007 (its inception) to 2015 (the latest complete year at the time that the study was conducted) revealed (a) a statistically significantly higher proportion of empirical research articles (63.2%) than non-empirical research articles (36.8%), (b) that empirical research articles were 1.4 times (95% confidence interval = 1.10, 1.78) more likely to involve multiple authors than were non-empirical research articles; and (c) that empirical research articles contained statistically significantly more authors than did non-empirical research articles. With respect to the qualitative phase, four themes (i.e., mental perception, mixed methods research, publication and research aids, and independent/group work) emerged regarding collaboration for empirical articles versus for non-empirical research articles. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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    The effects of elliptical cross training on VO2 max in recently trained runners
    (Western Kentucky University (International Journal of Exercise Science), 2011) Joubert, Dustin P.; Oden, Gary L.; Estes, Brent
    This study examined the effects of elliptical cross training on VO2max in recently trained runners. 12 female and 8 male participants (mean ± SD; age = 23.70 ±6.33 years, body mass index = 24.85 ± 5.89 kg/m2) completed an initial four-week run training program, exercising four days/week, 30 minutes/day, at 80% maximal heart rate. VO2max was predicted based on the duration of a Bruce graded-maximal treadmill test (GXT) prior to and after the run training. After initial training phase and post-test, subjects volunteered for the detrain group (n = 6) or were assigned to the run (n= 7) or elliptical (n= 7) based on a matched-pair design. Elliptical and run groups exercised three weeks under same prescription as initial program. GXT again performed after mode-specific training phase. VO2max (ml/kg/min) increased (p < 0.001) from the pre-training (39.89 ± 10.74) to post-training (41.66 ± 10.90) after the initial run training program. Although not statistically significant, VO2max declined(0.8% running, 1.5% elliptical, and 4.8% detraining) for all groups following the additional mode-specific program. Despite declines, repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences within or between groups before and after the mode-specific training phase. However, dependent sample t-test did reveal a decline (p < 0.05) in GXT time (minutes) for the detrain group from before (11.01 ± 2.80) and after (10.54 ± 2.72) their detrain phase. Future research should determine if elliptical exercise maintains VO2max when away from running for longer periods.
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    An Exploration of Esports Consumer Consumption Patterns, Fandom, and Motives
    (IGI Global (International Journal of eSports Research), 2021-01) Anderson, Devin; Sweeney, Kevin; Pasquini, Erica; Estes, Brent; Zapalac, Ryan
    Esports, or competitive gaming, has become a large market in the entertainment industry, with a total market value approaching $1 billion USD in 2019. An understanding of esports consumers has become increasingly important as the industry continues to grow and evolve. Using a sample of 374 university students at a large public university, this study examines the motivations and fandom of esports consumers using a modified version of the Sport Fandom Questionnaire (SFQ) and the Motivation Scale for Sports Consumption (MSSC). Survey respondents were asked about their consumption of esports in relation to viewership, event attendance, social media usage, and spending. Three stepwise regression analyses were employed to examine the predictive capabilities of esports fandom and esports motivations on esports consumption variables. The results reveal a wide variety of relationships between esports fandom, motivation for consumption, and consumption behaviors.
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    Short-term, highfat diet accelerates disuse atrophy and protein degradation in a muscle-specific manner in mice
    (BioMed Central (Nutrition & Metabolism), 2015) Roseno, Stephen L.; Davis, Patrick R.; Bollinger, Lance M.; Powell, Jonathan S.; Witczak, Carol A.; Brault, Jeffrey
    Background: A short-term high-fat diet impairs mitochondrial function and the ability of skeletal muscle to respond to growth stimuli, but it is unknown whether such a diet alters the ability to respond to atrophy signals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rapid weigh gain induced by a high-fat (HF) diet accelerates denervation-induced muscle atrophy. Methods: Adult, male mice (C57BL/6) were fed a control or HF (60 % calories as fat) diet for 3 weeks (3wHF). Sciatic nerve was sectioned unilaterally for the final 5 or 14 days of the diet. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were removed and incubated in vitro to determine rates of protein degradation and subsequently homogenized for determination of protein levels of LC3, ubiquitination, myosin heavy chain (MHC) distribution, and mitochondrial subunits. Results: When mice were fed the 3wHF diet, whole-body fat mass more than doubled, but basal (innervated) muscle weights, rates of protein degradation, LC3 content, mitochondrial protein content, and myosin isoform distribution were not significantly different than with the control diet in either soleus or EDL. However in the 14 day denervated soleus, the 3wHF diet significantly augmented loss of mass, proteolysis rate, amount of the autophagosome marker LC3 II, and the amount of overall ubiquitination as compared to the control fed mice. On the contrary, the 3wHF diet had no significant effect in the EDL on amount of mass loss, proteolysis rate, LC3 levels, or ubiquitination. Fourteen days denervation also induced a loss of mitochondrial proteins in the soleus but not the EDL, regardless of the diet. Conclusions: Taken together, a short-term, high-fat diet augments denervation muscle atrophy by induction of protein degradation in the mitochondria-rich soleus but not in the glycolytic EDL. These findings suggest that the denervation-induced loss of mitochondria and HF diet-induced impairment of mitochondrial function may combine to promote skeletal muscle atrophy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]