Department of Population Health

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 39
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    Association between Handwashing Behavior and Infectious Diseases among Low-Income Community Children in Urban New Delhi, India: A Cross-Sectional Study
    (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2021-11) Khan, Khalid M.; Chakraborty, Rishika; Brown, Stephen L.; Sultana, Rasheda; Colon, Alec; Toor, Devinder; Upreti, Pooja; Sen, Banalata
    Diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections (RI) are two leading causes of childhood mortality in low and middle-income countries. Effective handwashing at critical time-points may mitigate these diseases. However, there is a lack of published data investigating this association in school-aged children in India. This study is part of a larger prospective handwashing intervention study in a low-income community in New Delhi, India examining the associations between handwashing behavior and diarrhea and RI in schoolchildren. This current study reports the findings of the baseline survey administered to 272 mother–child dyads. Children aged 8–12 years, and their mothers, were recruited from six schools. A baseline questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, handwash behavior, and mother-reported recent diarrhea and RI incidence among the children. Handwashing before and after preparing food, after defecation, and after cleaning dishes significantly reduced the odds of diarrhea by over 70%, and of RI by over 56%. Using a clean cloth after handwashing lowered odds of diarrhea and RI by 72% and 63% respectively. Around 60% of the participants believed that handwashing could prevent diarrhea and RI in their children. There was a low prevalence of handwashing at critical time-points and a poor perception regarding handwashing benefits. To improve handwashing behavior, hygiene promotion programs need to understand what motivates and hinders handwashing in vulnerable populations.
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    Teaching and Learning in the Large Classroom: A Mixed-Methods Approach for Undergraduate Health Management Education
    (The Journal of Health Administration Education, 2020) Scarbrough, Amanda W.; Brown, Stephen L.; Alva, Chasidy
    For several decades, many involved in U.S. higher education—researchers, educational psychologists, professors, students, and administrators—have highlighted the challenges the large lecture class format presents for teaching undergraduates (Hamilton, 2012). Instructors report that the large lecture, while still the most common pedagogy in high-enrollment survey courses, often results in lower student participation and lack of student accountability, which in turn can lead to less engagement. Students in large lectures report feeling disconnected from the course material, the instructor, and classmates (Cooper & Robinson, 2000). This disengagement may contribute to students' difficulty focusing in class and lack of clarity about course concepts, prompting them to lose interest in course topics, and eventually skip class and perform poorly on exams. Additionally, students often find it more challenging to learn, process, and think critically about information presented during a typical lecture (Lineman, 2018).
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    Influence of high school sport participation and adult physical activity
    (Journal of Sport and Health Research, 2014) Bice, M.; Ball, J.; Brown, Stephen L.; Parry, T.
    BACKGROUND: Although the need for physical activity is often cited, few research studies examine the influence of high school sport participation on adulthood physical activity. This study examines this association using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). METHODS: In 2012, 1350 adults in southern Illinois were surveyed assessing current physical activity levels. Variables included: participant’s age, weight, height, high school sport. The IPAQ was used to summarize individual physical activity levels. Participant’s self reported physical activity levels were averaged and correlations and independent ttests were used to assess the data. RESULTS: Individuals who participated in competitive high school sports reported to have higher physical activity levels than participants that did not. Significant differences in physical activity levels were present in total moderate exercise time and total walking time. Participants who did not participate in high school sports reported significantly higher total time spent sitting compared to those participants who did compete in high school sports. CONCLUSIONS: High school sport participation cannot predict future physical activity trends; however, this study does implicate that physical activity derived from high school sport participation can transition into adulthood. As no significant differences were found in BMI between individuals who participated in high school sports, it is significant to note that high school sport participation may be a significant contributing adult obesity factor. This study can imply that high school sports aids in an active lifestyle but not any different than those who participate in recreational activities.
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    Resilience Training for Functioning Adults: Program Description and Preliminary Findings from a Pilot Investigation
    (International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2010) Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Brown, Stephen L.; Jackson, Theresa K.; Jordan, Jessica B.
    It has previously been asserted that the construct of resilience holds great promise for diverse high-risk populations and that resilience may be an attribute that can be acquired through training. A rich body of literature suggests the strengths that comprise resilience. This paper describes a resilience training program based upon the identified strengths of resilience and provides additional preliminary data from a pilot investigation which lend support to the idea that resilience can be acquired through training. Suggestions for future research are provided. [International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2010, 12(2), pp. 117-130].
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    Preventive Mental Health Education for Functioning Adults: Stress, Coping and Mental Health Courses at the University of Maryland
    (International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2002) Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Brown, Stephen L.
    Three fifteen-week courses at the University of Maryland are described. These courses explore diverse cognitive-behavioral skills that facilitate coping, are preventive in nature, and are suitable for learning by healthy individuals in educational settings. Initial results, previously reported, are encouraging and suggest the possibilities that similar courses might be offered in other university, community or workplace settings. [International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2002 4(1),pp 57-63].
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    Healthy Tazewell County Initiative: Variations in Community Quality of Life, Health Problems, and Risky Behaviors by Age Category
    (Undergraduate Research Journal of for the Human Sciences, 2014) Carlson, Alyssa; Stegmaier, Angela; Cluskey, Maureen; Randall, G. Kevin
    The MAPP process, a strategic planning tool that allows communities to prioritize their public health issues, was employed by the Tazewell County Health Department to assess what factors residents perceived to be (a) the most important for community quality of life, (b) the greatest health problems, and (c) the top risky behaviors impacting community health. Data, collected through an online survey, were provided by 456 participants residing in the county and at least 18 years of age. First, we conducted a frequency analysis on the top three factors for community quality of life, health problems, and risky behaviors as nominated by participants. Second, we assessed whether or not the factors differed by age groups/cohorts: 25-34, 35-44, 45-55, 55-64, and those over 65. Although the top factors for community quality of life did not vary much by age cohort, 38 percent of those 65+ listed religious or spiritual values as one of their top three. Heart disease and stroke were common health concerns, but the youngest group listed teen pregnancy as a top health concern (35.6%), whereas the three older groups cited health problems associated with aging as a concern. The groups agreed consistently on the top three risky behaviors. Thus for these survey respondents, the top factors for community quality of life, and the top health problems varied by age category. Implications for public policy are discussed, including how age cohort related issues such as religiosity and health problems impact constituency preferences.
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    Understanding Centenarians’ Psychosocial Dynamics and Their Contributions to Health and Quality of Life
    (Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 2010-06) Poon, Leonard W.; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex; Cho, Jinmyoung; da Rosa, Grace; Deshpande, Neha; Hensley, Robert; MacDonald, Maurice; Margrett, Jennifer; Randall, G. Kevin; Woodard, John L.; Miller, L. Stephen
    While it is understood that longevity and health are influenced by complex interactions among biological, psychological, and sociological factors, there is a general lack of understanding on how psychosocial factors impact longevity, health, and quality of life among the oldest old. One of the reasons for this paradox is that the amount of funded research on aging in the US is significantly larger in the biomedical compared to psychosocial domains. The goals of this paper are to highlight recent data to demonstrate the impact of four pertinent psychosocial domains on health and quality of life of the oldest old and supplement recommendations of the 2001 NIA Panel on Longevity for future research. The four domains highlighted in this paper are (1) demographics, life events, and personal history, (2) personality, (3) cognition, and (4) socioeconomic resources and support systems.
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    Successful Aging: A Psychosocial Resources Model for Very Old Adults
    (Journal of Aging Research, 2012-05) Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.
    Objectives. Using data from the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian Study, we proposed a latent factor structure for the Duke OARS domains: Economic Resources, Mental Health, Activities of Daily Living, Physical Health, and Social Resources. Methods. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two waves of the Georgia Centenarian Study to test a latent variable measurement model of the five resources; nested model testing was employed to assess the final measurement model for equivalency of factor structure over time. Results. The specified measurement model fit the data well at Time 1. However, at Time 2, Social Resources only had one indicator load significantly and substantively. Supplemental analyses demonstrated that a model without Social Resources adequately fit the data. Factorial invariance over time was confirmed for the remaining four latent variables. Discussion. This study’s findings allow researchers and clinicians to reduce the number of OARS questions asked of participants. This has practical implications because increased difficulties with hearing, vision, and fatigue in older adults may require extended time or multiple interviewer sessions to complete the battery of OARS questions.
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    Home Economics in Higher Education: Enhancing Student Learning and Promoting Responsible Student Behavior
    (International Journal of Home Economics, 2008) Randall, Kevin G.; Dallmeyer, Martha; Collins, Nina
    Numerous challenges exist for Home Economics/Family and Consumer Sciences Departments and their universities. For universities, one challenge is the promotion of responsible social behavior by students, especially in light of the abuse and overconsumption of alcohol so often associated with the new found freedoms on campus. For HE/FCS Departments, high construction costs and maintenance expenses associated with a quantity foods laboratory often result in food service students working at various sites off campus to gain needed experience, leading to lack of consistency in student experience and reduced oversight by faculty. This paper illustrates how HE/FCS food service courses can benefit not only the department and its majors, but also can support and strengthen the university’s comprehensive alcohol action plan—ultimately enhancing the educational experience for students university wide.
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    College Student Snacking Behaviour Pilot Study
    (International Journal of Home Economics, 2012) Dallmeyer, Martha A.; Davidson, Jeannette; Randall, Kevin; Newell, Amanda
    This study examined the snacking behaviour of undergraduate college students using a comprehensive survey that included a Healthy Snacking Knowledge Test (HSKT), a Snack Frequency Questionnaire, a survey of psychosocial correlates related to snacking behaviour (Situational Self-Efficacy, Barriers to Healthy Eating, and Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change), and demographic information. There were 105 student participants from two Midwestern universities. Results show 2.6 mean snacking occasions per day, and the snack food selections tended to be high in nutrient density. Upper classmen had more knowledge about healthful snack options than freshmen. These students were most confident about healthful snack choices in difficult or inconvenient settings. The main predictors of healthful snack consumption were the academic year, the higher level of stage of change, and the difficult/inconvenient subscale of snacking self-efficacy
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    Influences on Cookware Choices of Young Adults
    (Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, 2007) Hammar, Molly; Hannon, Rebecca; Rogers, Rachel; Collins, Nina; Randall, Kevin
    This study employed a focus group of thirteen mid-western university students ages 20-25 to test the hypothesis that after observing a demonstration using high-end stainless steel cookware, college student participants would exhibit a greater propensity to purchase the cookware than prior to the session. Questions regarding cookware choices were asked before and after the guided demonstration. Results confirmed that a guided demonstration of high-end, stainless steel cookware increased the likelihood of future purchase.
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    Microbial Growth in Ground Beef During Different Methods of Thawing.
    (Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, 2010) Zahid, Saba; Fleming, Theodore; Randall, G. Kevin
    Consumer safety has now become a pressing issue with recent illnesses and food recalls due to elevated microbiological contamination of a variety of different foods. Although there are many different steps in the handling and processing continuum that expose the food supply to potential microbial exposure and contamination, consumers can limit their risk for food-borne illness by practicing safe food handling practices in their homes. In this study, we examined several commonly used thawing methods and their impact on microbial growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thawing methods on microbial growth in ground beef. Microbial growth was evaluated during a six-hour thaw period using three different thawing methods: refrigerator, room temperature, and standing water bath. Beef maintained in the freezer was used as a control. Bacterial counts per gram of beef were determined at one-hour intervals using a viable count method. The least amount of bacterial growth occurred when beef was thawed in the refrigerator while bacterial growth occurred more rapidly in beef thawed at room temperature or in a standing water bath. After six hours, beef thawed in a standing water bath had the greatest bacterial count, 1.5 x 104 bacteria per gram of beef. This was 1.75 and 3.89 times greater than the microbial counts in beef samples thawed at room temperature or the refrigerator, respectively.
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    Correlates of Protein Intake among Community Dwelling Older Adults
    (Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, 2010) Sargent, Meredith E.; Evola, Kelly L.; Davidson, Jeannette; Randall, G. Kevin
    Nutritional recommendations, BMI, and quality of life may be uniquely related in a population of older adults. The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for dietary protein in older adults is 0.8 g/ kg of body weight per day, but controversy exists as to whether this amount is adequate. Research findings suggest that the protein turnover rate decreases by the age of 70, resulting in a greater need for protein by older adults. In addition, nutritional studies have suggested a lower mortality rate is associated with overweight BMI ranges in older adults. Last, a relationship between nutritional risk and quality of life has been found in community living elderly adults. To date no studies have been found investigating the relationship between protein intake and various physical and mental health correlates, such as quality of life among community dwelling older adults. Using data collected from a convenience sample of this population, who indicated protein intake of 0.8 -1.6 g/kg and BMIs of 25 and over, we investigated the relationship between protein intake, self-rated physical health, and life regard; analyses controlled for age, sex, and marital status. Results from a hierarchical regression analysis showed that a measure of life regard significantly and positively contributed to Protein Intake. This final model explained 49 percent of the variance.
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    Beverage Consumption of College Students: Factors that Influence Their Choices
    (Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, 2011) Randall, G. Kevin; Collins, Nina; Mills, Ellen; Grumbine, Rachel
    Beverage consumption is a major source of energy; intake varies depending on demographics, availability, and personal and behavioral influences (Storey, Forshee, & Anderson, 2006). To date no studies were found investigating the milk and soda consumption behavior of college students and the factors influencing their choices relative to such consumption. Based on Martin and Martin’s (2002) Developmental Adaptation Model, this study employed hierarchical regression and path mediation analyses to examine distal (family consumption) and proximal factors that influenced beverage consumption among college students. The results of this research found the three most influential factors that affect amount of milk consumption by college students are taste, family consumption, and perceived nutritional value; the most influential factors for soda consumption was taste, frequency of eating out, and perceived negative effect on dental caries.
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    Comparing the Support-Efficacy Model among Centenarians Living in Private Homes, Assisted Living Facilities, and Nursing Homes
    (Journal of Aging Research, 2011) Randall, G. Kevin; Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.; McDonald, Maurice; Margrett, Jennifer
    We investigated the influence of social relations on health outcomes in very late life by examining the support-efficacy convoy model among older adults who resided in three different residential environments (centenarians in private homes, n = 126; centenarians in assisted living facilities, n = 55 ; centenarians in nursing homes, n = 105). For each group, path analytic models were employed to test our hypotheses; analyses controlled for sex, mental status, education, perceived economic sufficiency, and activities of daily living. The hypothesized relationships among the models’ variables were unique to each of the three groups; three different models fit the data depending upon residential environment. The direct and indirect effects of social relations assessments were positive for the mental and physical health of very old adults, suggesting that participants welcomed the support. However, residential status moderated the associations between the assessments of social relations, self-efficacy, and both outcomes, physical and mental health.
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    Service Learning and Civic Responsibility: Assessing Aggregate and Individual Level Change
    (International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 2011) Brandes, Kendra; Randall, G. Kevin
    This study sought to expand the extant literature regarding the effectiveness of a higher education service-learning project designed to increase students’ civic and socially responsive knowledge and intentions. A class with a semester long service-learning component was administered a pre- and post-test assessment using multi-item scales to determine if a student’s sense of civic responsibility would increase. Our hypothesis predicting overall mean or aggregate change in civic responsibility was not affirmed by the paired t-tests or analysis of covariance tests. However, using growth curve modeling, we investigated between-individual differences in within-individual change. The study’s results demonstrated that significant variation in individual differences between time one and time two did exist. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that previous service-learning experience, outside the classroom setting, predicted the level of civic attitudes and predicted the level and change of civic action.
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    Age Differences and Changes in Resources Essential to Aging Well: A Comparison of Sexagenarians, Octogenarians, and Centenarians
    (Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 2011-08-05) Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann
    This study examined change over time in five resources assessed by the Duke OARS Multidisciplinary Functional Assessment Questionnaire: social, economic, mental, physical, and functional resources. Two hundred and one participants in the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this longitudinal study: 70 sexagenarians, 63 octogenarians, and 68 centenarians. Those in their 60s and 80s were followed up within 60 months; due to mortality attrition, centenarians were followed up within 20 months. Centenarians experienced the lowest levels of resources relative to those in their 80s and 60s. Over time they primarily experienced loss in activities of daily living, highlighting that the ability to maximize gains and mitigate losses over time for older adults is highly associated with various resources essential to well-being. Findings suggest that older adults’—especially the very old—resources should be concurrently assessed in a multidimensional analysis by researchers and practitioners who work with older adults in various settings.
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    Sharing My Journey With My Students: Applied Assignments That First Changed MY Relationships
    (Family Science Review, 2012) Randall, G. Kevin
    Parker Palmer (1998) said it well: “We did not merely find a subject to teach - the subject also found us” (p. 25). In this brief article, I want to share with others what my subject has taught my students and me. Over the past 20 years, three particular assignments or practicums, as I call them in class, have consistently earned high commendations from my undergraduate students, students whose academic majors vary across the campus from engineering and technology to liberal arts and sciences. These three assignments, focusing primarily on the family of origin, interpersonal communication, and forgiveness, are the applied backbone of the course, Family Relations, an upper-level undergraduate course.
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    Food Portion Sizes Consumed by College Students
    (Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, 2008) Cloyd, Brooke N.; Collins, Nina; Randall, G. Kevin
    Obesity is on the rise in the United States, and causes of such an epidemic have become the basis of research in many scientific studies. Researchers are looking at portion control or distortion as one part of the problem. This portion control problem can put people who often eat in a cafeteria setting at high risk for obesity. This study examined a Midwestern University’s students’ eating habits and compared their eating habits to the USDA guidelines. The purpose of this study was to compare the estimated portion sizes of fruits, vegetables, and french fries consumed by college students with the USDA suggested serving size. "Serving Size Screener ” was administered to a volunteer sample consisting of 67 college students (45 females) in general education classes during the 2008 spring semester. Participants were given a portion guide to use as they completed the personal food frequency questionnaire. Single sample t-tests were performed comparing the study sample's perceived average portion size consumed relative to the USDA suggested size for the three categories. Results indicated that students consumed significantly larger servings of each item than the USDA recommendations.
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    Evaluation of Waterless Cookware on an Induction Cooktop
    (Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences, 2008) Coyle, Michelle; Fontana, Michelle; Knaak, Alaina; Lynch, Rachael; Zannis, Maria-Kanella; Collins, Nina; Randall, G. Kevin
    This student-faculty collaborative study compared the effects of different cookware using induction and electric cooktops on overall qualities of chicken breasts including shrinkage, palatability, and consumer acceptability. Four trials of cooking boneless, skinless, chicken breasts on each of these various cooktops were conducted to get an average shrink loss (i.e., weight and length change), taste, texture, and appearance. Objective tests resulted in lowest shrink loss and highest texture and appearance score for the high-end stainless steel cookware on an induction cooktop.